1.1 Background to the Study
The history of human race has also been the history of drug abuse (Maithya, 2007). In itself, the use of drugs does not constitute an evil; in fact some drugs have been a medical blessing. (Maithya, 2009) Since, time in memorial earliest times, herbs, roots, bark leaves have been used to relieve pain and help control diseases. History tells us that the Chinese used Opium as a cure of dysentery before the 18thcentury. European countries such as Britain and Holland were known to exchange opium growth in their colonies for tea and silk with China. Unfortunately, certain drugs that initially produce enticing effects, such as sense of feeling good, elation, serenity and power have evolved into a problem of dependence and abuse.
Drug abuse is a global problem that poses a great danger to the lives of individuals, society and political stability and security in many countries (United Nations, 2002). According to the United Nations (2005), the use of illicit drugs has increased throughout the world and the major world trend is the increasing availability of many kinds of drugs among ever widening spectrum of consumers. Of major concern is that children seem to be targeted as the new market for the drug industry globally.
Drugs and substance abuse has become the focus of research and preventive activities in the developed countries for decades (Muyabo, 2011). A study carried out by the London School of Economics in 1980 on students learning behaviour revealed a relationship between drug abuse and poor academic results (Otieno, Balswick & Norland, 2009).Africa has not been spared from the abuse of drugs by the youth.