1.1 Background to the study
The singular purpose of education is to produce a useful citizen; a citizen that is useful both to himself and the society in which he lives, and generally, to the world community. It is often very difficult to give a universally definition of education. Nevertheless it is possible to define education from three perspectives vis-à-vis: from philosophical, sociological and psychological. From philosophical perspective, education can be defined as a process of initiating the individuals into a worthwhile activity to the succeeding generations. Such worthwhile activities include desirable skills, attitude and value. In sociological perspective, education can be defined as a process by which the individuals are trained in the norms and value of the society through socialization. Also from the psychological perspective, education refers to the modification of behaviour of the learners in a controlled environment.
According to Etzioni (1984), educational institution can be defined as social unit that pursue specific goals which they are structured or organised to serve. The school as a social system and device means of evaluating its students to findout how far the school is achieving its goals. This related to the students cognitive development to determine what quality and quantity of learning has taken place in the learners, the moral standards and psychomotor development of students.
Family is a unit made up of the father, mother and children. This pattern is known and nuclear family. On the other hand we have the extended family or kin-group mostly found in Nigeria, India, and other West African countries. Family background arising from marriage institution which is found in variety forms such as monogamy, polygamy and polyandry. The role of the family in the socialization of the child is in the area of moral training, intellectual training, character training, love for others and vocational training.
The future of any society lies in its ability to train and socialize its young ones. The stability of its institution and political ways, this productivity of its industrial resources and the creativity of its intellectual talents reflect the degree of success of the adults in the society who have been given the responsibility for making good progress and developing its youths. These factors influence a child’s learning ability i.e. school environment home condition, peer groups and culture in the society. The two major socializing institution of the society are: - the family and the school it has been observed by (Daramola 2006) that throughout the world, there is no where that unequal access to essential facilities does not exist among people. These inequalities are recorded in all spheres of life, it could be found in education, health and other sectors with its attendant effects on social strata.