1.1 Background to the Study
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was unknown until the early 1980s, but since that time it has infected millions of persons in a worldwide pandemic (Edward, 2006). The result of HIV infection is relentless destruction of the immune system leading to onset of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The AIDS epidemic has already resulted in the deaths of over half of its victims. All HIV-infected persons are at risk of illness and death from opportunistic infections and neoplastic complications as a consequence of the inevitable manifestations of AIDS (Moss, & Bacchetti, 1989).
HIV/AIDS is a global crises, a challenge to human life and dignity with ability to erode social and economic development. It has great influence on stability, life expectancy and economic development. It is a major public health problem with sub-Sahara Africa severely affected by the epidemic (Lancet, 2002).