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PROJECT TOPIC: NEEDS FOR GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING SERVICES IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS AS PERCEIVED BY PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN ILORIN METROPOLIS

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

          Guidance and Counselling is based on the assumption that every individual in any society had, is having and will have a problem that he/she alone could not solve (Makinde, 1983). Okon (1984) suggested that African communities had always been carried out by traditional helper’s who assisted people when they had personal concerns and problems that could not be solved all by themselves. These traditional helpers have been identified in the various African cultures as ‘Uzenakpo among the Ibiobios, Dibia, Bokaye Uganda, Ngangu in Tanzania, Sikidy in Malaysia, Babalawo among Yoruba and Oboz among the Igala-tivs (Makinde 1983). This list is sufficiently convincing to indicate that traditional guidance have always been part of the role of the African extended family system in the traditional Nigeria society too. People sought solution to their problem in various ways, including going to fortune fellers, seeking advice from the elders, relation or friend.

          To explain the term guidance, Durojaiye (1992), viewed guidance within the content of the total educational process. He describe guidance as a complex process with encompasses the total needs of the individual, students to be directed or guided. This guide is available to the individual educational, social, emotional, health, vocational and leisure-time needs and for the individual preparation for a suitable occupation. This assistance h stressed, may take many forms. It may be educational, vocational, social, recreational, emotional and/or moral. Okon (1984) also defined guidance as a total programme of highly specialized activities implemented by all staff members to help individual make wise intelligent choices and decisions. As a service, guidance is the activities required for helping an individual for the enhancement of the individuals functioning. Guidance consist of the process of thinking an doing, it is the process of thinking and providing service aimed at helping individual to understand how to help themselves realistically.

          Shertzer and Stone (1994) define guidance as the process of helping individuals to understand themselves and their world. It should be clearly pointed out here that guidance has several definitions but they all point towards helping, aiding, directing or assisting an individual towards better understanding of him/herself and his/her world which leads to adjustment of the individual. It is a dynamic process, which undergoes continuous changes over time, as it is not a single event but a series of events, steps or actions, which are geared to general development of the individual.

          There are various guidance services which Okon (1984) called the basic element of guidance programme. The following activities are the essential services taken to paddle and cushion individuals off some of the problem that he or she may be faced with. These services include, Counselling information. Counselling services is a procedure by which a counselor assists a client or a group of clients achieve self-understanding and self-actualization. Information services involve the creation of awareness and provision of necessary guidance to assist students in decision making. Appraisal services encompass gathering, organizing and interpreting data or information about students for the purpose of assisting them to understand themselves.


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