1.1 Background to the Study
One of the most important factors that lead one to their goals is the drive. This drive is known as motivation. It is a zest and determination with a kind of excitement that leads one perseveres to reach greater heights, no matter what avenue of their life be it personal or academic (Sign, 2011). The drive may come from on internal or external source. The individual determines this. The factors that motivate an individual keep changing as one climb the ladder of age and maturity. Also achievement of one goal sets the ball rolling for another one to be achieved. Thus to be motivated is a constant need. There are times when one faces a period of de-motivation and everything seems weak. It is then that they need to find what would motivate them back into action.
Achievement motivation is generally regarded as the drive to achieve targets and the process to maintain the drive (Pinrich, 1996). Motivation provides an important foundation to complete cognitive behavior such as planning, organization, decision-making, learning and assessments (Schunk, 1996). Spence and Helmreich (1983) defined achievements motivation as task-oriented behaviour. Performances of individuals are often compared against standards or with other for assessments. Atkinson (1964) viewed achievement motivation as comparison of performances with others and against certain standard activities. To him, achievement motivation is a combination of two personality variables – tendency to approach success and tendency to avoid failure. Achievement motivation is the drive to work with diligence and vitality, to constantly steer toward targets, to obtain dominance in challenging and difficult tasks and create sense of achievement as a result (Bigge & Hunt, 1980).