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PROJECT TOPIC: THE EFFECT OF INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS ON JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS' LEARNING OUTCOMES

Project Body:


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Education is critical in all societies. Education is comprised of two critical components: teaching and learning. Teachers employ a variety of strategies while instructing their pupils and facilitating their active learning (Talabi, 2004). With the passage of time, new approaches and techniques join the area of education, and teachers employ a variety of aids to facilitate effective learning. When instructions and exercises for students and instructors are not provided, or when such exercises and instructional guides are not provided at all, this frequently results in the acquisition of a single specific idea within an integrated curriculum. To them, teaching social studies entails just conversing with pupils about a certain topic, which may be drawn from text books or a closer examination of some photographs (Talabi, 2004). This is occasionally followed by discussion, and students may offer follow-up questions regarding what they have learned. They may create visual representations of what has been said, but that is all. Teaching is more than this, which is why proper teaching aids are required at all levels of schooling. Additionally, the techniques of instruction, such as inquiry, discussion, and role-playing simulations (both activity-based and historical), need extensive preparation on the part of both teachers and students. To communicate successfully or elicit the required responses, it is necessary to deploy a variety of methods and techniques (audio-visual aids) that appeal to the majority, if not all, of the recipient's senses.

Teachers must be resourceful in order to educate effectively. According to Aguekobuo (2004), the teacher can do this through engaging in human capacity development activities that entail the use of a range of instructional styles and approaches. For these reasons, instructors must be familiar with all audio-visual devices that might aid in the teaching and learning process adequately. Additionally, it has been found that the subject has remained uninteresting throughout the years due to the verbalization technique of instruction. According to Agu & Hammad (2005), student performance has been quite poor. Indeed, the importance of excellent teaching and learning cannot be overstated. Additionally, Agu & Hammad (2005) noted that teachers continue to mostly employ conventional methods of instruction, which results in students' lack of knowledge and performance on the topic. According to Abolade (2009), all subjects, may be taught effectively via the use of a variety of audio-visual aids that appeal to the three senses of sight, touch, and hearing. Poor teaching tactics are one of the various possible elements impacting teaching and learning in our institutions. Abolode, (2009) continued by stating that out of the five (5) sense organs we use to acquire knowledge, visual materials used for learning and instructional materials that can be seen account for up to 80% of the learning process, while audio materials and equipment appealing to our sense of hearing account for 11%, and olfactory, tactile, and tasting account for 9%.

As a result, it is asserted that audio-visual educational tools have enhanced the meaning of qualitative and quantitative education by producing desirable outcomes. However, audiovisual usage does not appear to be receiving significant consideration from all parties involved, including students, instructors, educational sponsors, and educational administrators/managers, to name a few. These materials have educational value and are available in a variety of forms and quality today. Audio-visual resources have been identified to assist the transfer of information, knowledge, skills, attitudes, and other relevant capabilities through successful communication. According to Omoyele (2016), teachers should be aware that the learning materials that instructors and students utilize can have an effect on the success of an educational program. Audio visual materials may be defined as the many methods or equipment used to communicate information throughout the teaching and learning process that teachers must employ to help students have a better grasp of Nigeria's cultural, transportation, and conflict issues. However, a lack of adequate and suitable audio-visual resources required for efficient teaching and learning is causing misunderstanding and bewilderment among parents, instructors, and students throughout the country over the school curriculum.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Due to the progress and development of current technology, a variety of instructional materials may be employed to enhance the vividness and effectiveness of learning. This indicates that students can perform better wherever they are taught using these instructional tools, particularly audio-visual aids, because their comprehension, demonstration, and collaboration should improve significantly during the teaching-learning process. Unfortunately, the majority of teachers do not include instructional resources into their instruction (Omoyele 2016). Probably owing to a shortage of materials or ways for utilizing them. To this purpose, the researcher frequently examines the influence of audio, visual, and online materials on the learning outcomes of junior secondary school pupils.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main objective of this study is to examine the effect of instructional aids on junior secondary school students' learning outcomes. Specifically but not limited to, other objectives of this study are:

i.          To determine the extent instructional aids are used in Junior secondary schools.

ii.        To examine the different types of instructional aids used in Junior secondary schools.

iii.      To determine whether the use of instructional aids impacts the learning outcomes in Junior secondary schools.

iv.      To examine the challenges of using instructional aids in Junior secondary schools.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions which are in line with the objectives of this study will be answered:

i.          To what extent are instructional aids used in Junior secondary schools?

ii.        What are the different types of instructional aids used in Junior secondary schools?

iii.      Does the use of instructional aids impacts the learning outcomes in Junior secondary schools?

iv.      What are the challenges of using instructional aids in Junior secondary schools?

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Invariably, the study will be extremely beneficial to students, instructors, and researchers. Students will be able to interpret and comprehend a variety of instructional tools that help in the teaching-learning process, most notably video shows. The study will be a resource for instructors interested in determining the effect of instructional aids on student academic progress, particularly in junior secondary schools. Additionally, it will emphasize the instructional resources that will pique students' attention and encourage active engagement in the topic. The study will help instructors comprehend that the effectiveness of any teaching-learning activity is contingent upon the extent to which students may learn or benefit from it. This may be accomplished by utilizing proper audio-visual assistance. The study will serve as a guide for scholars interested in doing more research on the effects of instructional aids on academic attainment. Additionally, the researcher will get an understanding of the effect of comprehension, demonstration, and collaboration on the usage of instructional aids in the teaching-learning process.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

Broadly, this study is focused on examining the effect of instructional aids on junior secondary school students' learning outcomes. In specific terms, this study is focused on determining the extent instructional aids are used in Junior secondary schools and examining the different types of instructional aids used in Junior secondary schools.

Furthermore, this study will also specifically be focused on determining whether the use of instructional aids impacts the learning outcomes in Junior secondary schools and examining the challenges of using instructional aids in Junior secondary schools.

Teachers and students of Gusau in Zamfara State will serve as enrolled participants for the survey of this study.

1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

Broadly, this study is limited to examining the effect of instructional aids on junior secondary school students' learning outcomes. In specific terms, this study is limited to determining the extent instructional aids are used in Junior secondary schools and examining the different types of instructional aids used in Junior secondary schools.

Furthermore, this study will also specifically be limited to determining whether the use of instructional aids impacts the learning outcomes in Junior secondary schools and examining the challenges of using instructional aids in Junior secondary schools.

Teachers and students of Gusau in Zamfara State will serve as enrolled participants for the survey of this study, thus the sample size was limited because only a few respondents were chosen to answer the research instrument, therefore the results cannot be generalized to other secondary schools outside the state.

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Instructional aids: Instructional aids are used in the classroom to encourage learning and thereby make it easier and interesting. The materials like charts, maps, models, concrete objects, film strips, projector, radio, television etc. which help a teacher for effective teaching may be called instructional aids.

Learning Outcomes: Learning outcomes are statements that describe the knowledge or skills students should acquire by the end of a particular assignment, class, course, or program.


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