1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The construction industry activities include procurement of goods and services as well as the execution of a variety of physical structures and infrastructure (Ayangade, Wahab and Alake 2009), using different procurement methods. The activities of construction industry has helped in contributing to Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Gross fixed capital formation and creation of high level of employment to the changing professionals (Wahab, 2005). In industrialized countries, the building industry is responsible for up to 22.00% of the GDP and employs up to 12.00% of the total labour force, but in Nigeria, it is responsible for 16.00% of the GDP and employs up to 20.00% of the labour force (Akindoyeni, 2004). The construction industry has many features which set it apart from other process industries and which accentuate the need for professional engagement. Various methods have been used for procuring building and other infrastructural facilities in the country. One of the changes and new trends, which now influence the procurement system in the country, is the increasing fragmentation of the stages involved in construction process (Bamisile, 2004).
Until 1999, Nigeria had practically institutionalized corruption as the foundation of governance.
Hence institutions of society easily decayed to unprecedented proportions as opportunities were privatized by the powerful. This process was accompanied, as to be expected, by the intimidation of the judiciary, the subversion of due process, the manipulation of existing laws and regulations, the suffocation of civil society, and the containment of democratic values and institutions. Power became nothing but a means of accumulation and subversion as productive initiatives were abandoned for purely administrative and transactional activities. The legitimacy and stability of the state became compromised as citizens began to devise extra-legal and informal ways of survival. All this made room for corruption. (BPP website).
There was therefore an urgent call for Procurement Reforms and enthronement of Due Process in the Nigerian public Sector. It is as a result of this, that due process was established in 2001.
Nigeria nation has lost several trillions of Naira on poorly executed contracts, bad workmanship, collapsed structures, delayed and abandoned projects, and the multiplier economic and social benefits derived from such projects are unachievable (Ajator, 2004). The problems of capital development program from the era of military dictatorship were characterized by full paid ghost projects, poorly executed or even abandoned projects.
Since the early 80s, Nigeria has been confronted with a magnitude of economic problems. These economic problems include stagnant growth, rising inflation, unemployment, food shortage and mounting external debt. Nigeria therefore like most other nations, has been battling with how to achieve its major economic objectives. These objectives include full employment, price stability, economic growth and healthy balance of payments. It has not been easy for Nigeria to realize the above objectives. The root of all these problems is corruption (Oguonu 2007).