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PROJECT TOPIC: ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION IN THE CONTROL OF MALARIA

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND  OF THE STUDY

Malaria still remains a significant public health problem especially in low and middle income countries. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), malaria transmission in Nigeria is abysmally high with over 76% of the population reporting more than 1 case per 1,000 populations annually. There was a less than 50% decrease in projected incidence of malaria from 2000–2015. Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo account for more than 35% of the global total of estimated malaria deaths.

Malaria is principally caused by protozoa (Plasmodium species) and is transmitted through the bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito (Mwangangi et al., 2013). Within the tropics and sub-tropics, human malaria is seen to be the most wide spread vector-borne disease (Ahmad et al., 2011). Available statistics have documented that malaria is highly endemic in Nigeria with over 90% of the populace at risk of infection. It is the prime cause of 60% outpatient consultation for all age groups and at least half of the Nigerian populace are exposed to at least one bout of malaria attack every year (Idowu J., 2012).

An integrative approach has been recommended to mitigate the spread of malaria parasites. One of such strategy or approach is the Integrated Vector Management (IVM) through a combination of biological and chemical methods. It is aimed at improving ecological soundness and sustainability for the control of vector borne diseases, improve efficacy and cost effectiveness (Zacchaeus and Amadi, 2012). From a triad perspective which includes the agent, host and environment, researchers and scholars have encouraged the source reduction, elimination and eradication of mosquitoes breeding sites by concentrating on the environment. These tend to be essential because, the proliferation of mosquitoes continually perpetuate the transmission of malaria. So, it can be postulated that if the sources of mosquitoes breeding sites is eradicated or eliminated, malaria would be drastically reduced. This implies that good environmental sanitation practices could help mitigate malaria transmission, promote healthiness and improve quality of life of the populace.


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