The aim of this thesis is to assist Makana Municipality in their work to develop the sanitation in the rural areas, with the focus on dry toilets. This thesis will present recommendations for dry sanitation systems, since different solutions can be suited for different places, depending on type of soil, placement or use. In addition to this, ideas on how to educate residents to use and maintain the toilets will be given. This thesis will try to answer the question of which type of dry sanitation solution would suit the rural areas in Makana Municipality and base these recommendations on the feasibility study that was completed in the spring of 2012 by students from Novia University of Applied Sciences.
The world’s sanitation problems cannot be solved by building water latrines and sewerage systems. The building and maintenance costs are too high and, furthermore, this infrastructure cannot ensure a clean environment. The necessary quantity and quality of water for such a solution cannot be found in many regions of the world. It is preferable to find a sanitation solution that both works well, and is cheap and as simple as possible, both in the implementation stage and in use.
United Nations Economic and Social Council stated already in 1958 that “no higher quality of water, unless there is a surplus of it, should be used for a purpose that can tolerate a lower grade.” Therefore, it is necessary to develop cheap, technically simple andsafe sanitation alternatives, which can be adjusted to meet the needs of different cultures and environments. It is also necessary to increase sanitation and hygiene education for understanding of the connections between human and environment health (de Ruyter van Steveninck E.D. & Schwartz K., 2004).