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PROJECT TOPIC: IMPROVING THE DIETARY INTAKE OF DIABETIC PATIENTS IN IKWO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

According to world health organization (WHO, 2003), Diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or an organism. Diet may also be modified and used for persons who are ill as part of their therapy (Therapetical diet). Diet is the usual food or drink consumed by an organism (person or animal) (Njoku, 2012). Dietary intakes are the habitual decision an individual makes when choosing what food to eat. Dietary intake also implies the use of specific intake of nutrition for health or weight management. Individual’s dietary choice may be more or less healthy, proper nutrition requires the proper ingestion and absorption of food nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and food energy in the form of carbohydrates, proteins and fats (Alderman and Garcia, 2000).

“Diabetes” comes from Greek word “siphon” Aretus the cappadocian, a Greek physician during the second century A.D named the condition diabainein (Bakhru, 2012). He described patients who were passing too much water (polyuria), as a siphon. The word became “diabetes” from the English word adoption or the Medieval Latin diabetes. Diabetic patients have no or little ability to produce the hormone insulin and are entirely dependent on insulin injection for survival. Management should consider nutrition, physical activity and pharmacologic therapies, i.e. the study of the use of drugs (Anderson and Prior, 2008).

Joshi and shubanginia (1992) stated that diabetes mellitus, commonly known as diabetes is one of the most serious diseases affecting humanity. Its incidence has increased alarmingly and has affected 18 million Indians (Garrow, James and Ralph, 1999).

According to Sumati and Mudambi, (2000), Diabetes mellitus is a genetic disease of metabolism in which there is a partial or total inability of the body to synthesize insulin which is characterized by partial loss of ability or complete inability of the tissue to use carbohydrates, hyperglycemia (an excess of glucose in the blood stream), glycosuria (the presence of glucose in the urine in abnormally large amounts) and excess urination occur. It is a chronic degenerative disease in which the body lacks the normal ability to metabolize glucose.


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