This chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, significance of the study, scope and limitations of the study. It also gives the conceptual framework and definition of key terms.
1.2 Background of the Study
Teaching strategies are used to impart knowledge to Student they are the means by which the teacher attempts to impart the desired learning or experience (Ndirangu, 2007). The choice of a particular method of teaching by the teacher determined by number of factors which includes the content to be taught, the objectives which the teacher plans to achieve availability of teaching and learning resources and the ability and willingness of the teacher to improvise if convectional teaching aids are not available, evaluation and follow-up activities and Individual learner differences (Ndirangu, 2007).
The strategies used in teaching vary from one country to another, depending on the information or skills that is being taught and also be influenced by the aptitude and enthusiasm of the student. Various studies had been conducted concerning teaching strategies, for example Asikhia (2010), found that, qualification of teachers and Student’ environment factors do not influence Student and attitude but teachers’ strategies of teaching influence poor academic attitude. Furthermore, the strategies of teaching are dictated by the medium of instruction for example, where English is used, the method of instruction has to be more interactive than passive (Pillar and Skilling, 2005). It also argued that classroom teachers urgently need to know more about effective strategies for teaching English learners (Thompson, 2004). The commonly used teaching strategies especially in developing countries are teacher centered (Guloba, Wokodola, and Bategeka, 2010), which are viewed to be somewhat ineffective in the impartation of knowledge.
These strategies are no longer used in other counties. Problem-life learning as a teaching method is becoming increasing popular in education institutions as a tool to address the inadequacies of tradition teaching strategies since its approaches do not encourage student to participate in the learning process (Teo and Wong, 2000). However, more recently there is an argument in education industry to adopt a learner- centered paradigm shift (Ndirangu, 2007), while other schools of thought are advocating participatory strategies of teaching (Sajjad, 2011).
Despite these arrays of teaching strategies being advocated in literature there is no one universally accepted method. The question still remains is which of these teaching strategies contribute to failure or success of Student’ attitude especially in developing countries like Nigeria where the causes of poor attitude in Universities is not well understood.
1.3 Statement of the Research Problem
Student’ attitude in Nigerian Universities has been poor, and one of the reason cited is the type of strategies of learning-teaching used. Education in Nigeria especially in adult education, the majorities of Student have failed or have not shown good attitude in the examination results in summative evaluation (Laddunuri 2012). Marikinyo (2003), believes that the falling level of academic performance is attributed to teachers non-use of verbal reinforcement strategy. Several studies have been conducted about teaching strategies in Universities in many parts of the world on Student’ attitude, for example in USA (Haas 2002), Pakistan (Sajjad 2011), Nigeria (Barneka 2012), (Asikhia 2010), Uganda (Guloba, Wokadala and Bategeka, 2010) and Nigeria (Njoroge et al., 2014). These studies indicated that the type of teaching strategies used by teachers have an impact on Student’ attitude.
Most of the studies conducted in Nigeria concentrated on factors affecting Student attitude and policy making rather than how teaching strategies influence the Student’ attitude example (Laddunuri 2012), (Kkairuki, 2009) and (Kat ram, 2007). Another study by Mruma (2013) examined motivation of teachers in Universities. None of these studies have specifically examined the effect of teaching strategies on student attitude. This study bridges the gap and it examined effects of teaching strategies on Student’ in Geography education in in public universities in –Bayelsa, Nigeria.
1.4 Objectives of the Study
1.4.1 General Objective
The general objective of the study is to examine the effect of teaching strategies on student attitude in Geography education Nigerian education in public adult school in -Bayelsa, Nigeria.
1.4.2 Specific Objectives
The specific objectives guided this study were as follows;
1.4.3 Research Questions
The study answered the following questions
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study is worth of academic research on the following grounds:
First, the study was expected to reveal the impact of teaching strategies on Student’ attitude in Universities and contributes to the body of knowledge. Second, the study expected to provide a foundation for future researchers on literature for the topic of effects of teaching strategies on student attitude in Geography education science subject in Universities. Third, the study findings expected to beneficial to policy makers especially the Ministry of education and vocational training to put forward policies that would greatly encourage fair distribution of resources in public institutions if better results are to be obtained. Fourth, the findings also expected to benefit teachers of Universities in since it gave the ideas of most suitable teaching strategies for use in Geography education. Finally, the findings of this research expected to add the body of knowledge on teaching strategies and also basis for future research.
1.6 Scope and Delimitations
The study was focused on teaching strategies used and their effect on Student attitude in public universities in . The targeted population was Student taking Geography education for at least one year. Two other categories are science teachers and school inspectors. Since teaching strategies are so many in numbers the study was only concentrated on 7 of them which are citation, brainstorming, discussion, demonstration, lecture, presentation and seminar.
1.7 Definitions of Key Terms
Teaching strategies is defined as a way of carrying actual teaching in the classroom (Ndirangu 2007).
Teaching method refers to the variety of ways in which a learning task is managed to facilitate the learning process (Kimweri 2004).
Participatory strategies are strategies which enable learners to be active involve in the learning process either as individual or group (Musuko 2010).
Teacher –centered method of teaching is the process of communication where very little or no room for active participation of learners (Kimweri 2004).