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1.1        Background of the Study

Geographers have over the years noted regional imbalances in warning trends that seemed to render the term “global warning” invalid. While annual temperature averages unquestionably continued to rise through the late 1990s and early 2000s, over-heated areas in the Northern Hemisphere often were matched by excessively cool regions in the Southern Hemisphere (Blij, Muller, Williams, Conrad and Long, 2005).

             The discovery and extraction of natural resources has brought different consequences to countries that are endowed with such resources. While some of these nations have become economically strong and self sustaining, others have being drawn into serious economic hardships and conflicts due to the atmospheric influence of man and his activities while man through his various actions deliberately or inadvertently influence weather and climate which brings about climate change refers to an increase in average global temperatures.

             Natural events and human activities are believed to be contributing to an increase in greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2). Nigeria is experiencing adverse climate conditions with negative impacts on the welfare of millions of people. The climate of an environment or a region are usually explained in terms of the prevailing climatic elements of temperature, rainfall or precipitation, relative humidity, evaporation, solar radiation etc. The description of these climate element or parameters in any region is known as climatic characteristics of what region. Among all these parameters, the most widely used measure of climatic description is the temperature, rainfall or precipitation and relative humidity (Oguntoyinbo, 1983 and Ayoade, 1992).

          Over the years, studies of climatic characteristics have been limited to the micro scale known as micro climatic characteristics (Efe, 2002; Oguntoyinbo, 1981; Ojo, 1988; Figurola, 1995; and Efe and Aruegodine, 2003). Human activities have much effect on the climate of Abraka as most of these climatic parameters are being altered by the numerous activities of human in the region. Some of these human activities are the method of farming, gas flaring within the environment or neighbouring communities, transportation, fumes from factory buildings, illegal oil bunker, fumes from generator sets, improper waste disposal, deforestation etc.

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