CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
It is said that Health is wealth and for one to function effectively in one’s daily activities one has to be healthy. One of the primary objectives of school Health Education is to provide sufficient and accurate information about matters concerning Health. This is well amplified by the Nigeria Education Research Council (N.E.R.C) (2002) when it stated that an educated person is one who understands among other things the basic facts concerning health and promotes health knowledge, attitude, and practices within his locality. This will equally promote and train him all way round, physically, mentally,
socially, and morally. Nigeria Education Research Council further stated that one of the objectives of health education should be to broaden the health knowledge of students so that they will be able to think in terms of finding situation diseases control measures. Folarin (1979) defined Environmental Sanitation as the control of those factors in man’s physical environment, which may exercise some unexpected harmful effects on his body, mind, and even spirit. Lucas and Gill (1976) described environmental sanitation as a process of taming the environment so that it no longer constitutes a danger to man. They went further to show that the objective of environmental sanitation is to create and maintain healthful conditions in the environment.
Sanitation can also be described as measures are taken to keep living places clean and reduce the chances of infection or the spread of diseases. It also includes an adequate good ventilation system, proper disposal of sewage, and general cleanliness of the environment. The significance of the knowledge of the principles of health and sanitation towards the academic performance of a child cannot be over-emphasized. This study aims at determining the amount of information as well as misinformation possessed by the pupils selected in different schools with special regard to their attitude towards sanitation.
Purden (1997) in his report noted that sanitation is a field of public health, which involves man’s effort to control diseases. It is the realization of the undependability of those activities to man’s life and towards the academic achievement of a child that the Local Government Authority school syllabus on Health Education features environmental sanitation as a topic. This is obviously a clear manifestation of the significance attached to sanitation in man’s day-to-day activities. Many professions and sanitary agencies work to protect the health of the pupils who live in the school. In an attempt to promote a healthful school environment, the pupils on their own part are expected to initiate and execute different sanitary projects through self-help efforts. But the question is, what is the attitude of the pupils towards environmental sanitation?. This study is aimed at finding out the attitude of pupils in primary schools in Abakaliki Local Government Area towards environmental sanitation.