ABSTRACT Nigeria is a multi ethnic and multi religious country and thus there have been occurrence of ethnic-religious and political conflicts. Study of intergroup relation, such as that of Kankia which portray peaceful co-existence amidst peoples with variations in cultural and religious backgrounds, is of high relevance in the country nowadays. This research therefore, attempted to study the Role of Igbo and Yoruba migrants in the development of Kankia town, 1950-2016. Based on the framework of push and pull factors, the work examined the cases responsible for the settlement of migrants in Kankia, among which economic factor was the most important. The study further examines the social and economic activities of Igbo and Yoruba, their dominant role in certain commercial enterprises and their contributions to the development of Kankia town. Also, the study discovered that, relations between the migrants and their hosts have, for long, been cordial. For the Yoruba migrants, for instance, because of Islam as a factor, there have been instances of inter-marriages with their Hausa host communities. The study then recommends that, peoples of the country generally and policy makers in particular need to learn from Kankia so as to promote peaceful co-existence among Nigerian communities for the betterment of all. This study was carried out, using primary and secondary sources. CHAPTER ONE BACKGROUND OF STUDY 1.1 Introduction Migrant communities, throughout the world, have been playing significant roles in the development of societies. For instance, the activities of migrants in different part of Africa contributed in re-shaping many societies and are viewed as major aspects of the history of Africa. Therefore human migration has been transforming the aspect of racial and linguistic composition of human population.1 Generally, scholars are of the view that migration is influenced by two important factors: the push and the pull factors.2 the push factors include famine, war and flooding. The pull factors on the other hand, attract migrants to settle in an area, such as better socio-political and economic atmosphere.According to Abdulkadir the occurrence of famine and food shortage in some parts of Nigeria in 1932, for instance, served as push factors to the migration of people to different parts of Nigeria and beyond.3 This research is concerned with the migration and settlement of Yoruba and Igbo communities in Kankia town, 1950 – 2016. The Yoruba and Igbo came to Kankia town, in the second half of the 20th century, Igbo and Yoruba migrants were the predominant traders in Kankia town in fact their settlement facilitated trade and other economic activities in Kankia. This research is divided into five chapters. Chapter one gives the general background of the study. Chapter two examines the history of the area of study. Chapter three discusses the migration and settlement of Igbo and Yoruba migrants in Kankia town. Chapter four analyses the impact of Igbo and Yoruba in Kankia town. Chapter five provides summary and conclusion to the study.