This work looks at the relationship in the Nigeria–South Africa migration policies as developing countries in the processes of human migration and development. The work offers a critical analysis of the concept of Nigeria- South Africa migration in the 21st century and draws attention to the fundamental problems of Nigeria-South Africa migration. The work then gives a broad overview of the patterns of migration policies in the developing countries of Nigeria and South Africa. It outlines some of the economic, social and political drivers of migration within Nigeria and South Africa as a country. The work highlights on the factors that push and pull the people of Nigeria and south Africa to migrate, as a major challenges in the Nigeria-south Africa migration. The study has two main objectives viz: (1) to examine if Nigeria-south Africa migration policy is favourable to Nigerian migration relations to south Africa. (2) to explain if Nigeria migrants is a result of poor policy migration implementation. Maxist theory of development is the theoretical framework considered most appropriate. Being a qualitative descriptive research, data were collected through secondary resources such as books, journals, internet materials, etc. the findings shows that scholars have written on Nigeria-south Africa migration but in isolation, in other words, they have not been able to integrate the migration policy of Nigeria and south Africa. Among other things therefore, the study recommends sustainable and viable migration policy implementation.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Migration emerged as one of the main factors in social transformation and development in all region of the world. Its significance looks set to increase further in the twenty-first century as population mobility grows in volume and takes on new forms. Migration is a result of the integration of local communities and natural economies into global relationship. At the same, it is a cause of further social transformation in bothmigrant- sending and receiving countries. In traditional societies, many people spent their whole lives in their native village or neighbourhood. “Today, migration is becoming increasingly common as people move in search of security and a better livelihood from villages to towns, from one region to another in their home country, or between countries and continents”. Even those who do not migrate are affected as relatives, friends or descendants of migrants; or through experiences of change in their community as a result of departures of neighbour or arrival of new comers (Castles, 2000:31). Migration is often a result of economic and social development. In turn, migration may contribute to further development and improved economic and social conditions, or alternatively may help to perpetuate stagnation and inequality. Much depends on the character of migration and the actions taken by the governments and other stakeholders concerned this action result to migration policy. “Migration helps to erode traditional boundaries between languages, cultures, ethnic groups and national-states”. It therefore challenges cultural traditions, national identity and political institutions and contributes to a decline in the autonomy of the nation-state. (Castle 2000:32). The vast of contribution have focused on migration from the poorer to the wealthier part of the world, from the less developed to more developed regions. This focus of research and policy bears little relationship to the distribution of global migration across the world. The measurement of number of the people moving within the less developed areas of the world are no less, and more likely considerable more, than those moving to the developed regions. The balance is slowly being redressed by a growing body of research on so-called migration to which this paper contributes. (Bakewwll 2009:19).