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GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1.0            Introduction

Violence is a major concern in all segments of societies today.Studies by Kaplan (2012), Mc Quail (2010), Miller (2002) and Ajilore, Ojo, Nwalolikpe, Akinreti, Odeybenle and Jegede 2013) have shown that exposure to violent media, such as movies, can promote aggressive or violent behaviour in children, adolescents and youths (International Journal of Innovative

Research and Development, 2013). Researchers such as Mangwere, Wadesango, and Kurebwa, (2013) believe that exposure to action-packed movies greatly impact on the behaviour of children and adolescents. Most children and adolescents try to imitate the characters in movie; they want to be closely associated with the characters that they view as superior (Mangwere, et

al, 2013). They are seen acting like movie stars.They wrestle with friend on the street and use uncensored words. The most important concern in the debate about violent movies has been whether or not it promotes aggressive behaviour among youngviewers (Evra 1990).

Furthermore,the emergence of new media technologies to watchviolent movies have aggravated theeffects of violent movies (scenes)on adolescents. All these have cumulatively necessitated a study of this nature in Zaria.

1.1       Background to the Study

The impact of violent movies on young adults has been a contested issue in recent times.

Many believe that movies greatly influence the life of adolescents, especially in the negative dimension (Strasburger, 1993). Thus, most violent crimes in the society are blamed on young adults‘ or adolescents‘ exposure to movies with violent scenes. According to Chauhan (2011), movies are the best means of relaxation and opportunity for the viewers to identify with the

characters of the story. Movies satisfy basic desires which are often exhibited in the social 1 environment(Chauhan, 2011). Movie is a source of popular entertainment and it is pertinent to note that from the moment one indulges in watching movies, one is transformed into a new world where the mind is at ease(Nsisong, 2016). Adolescents watch movies for entertainment

and pleasure. Action, suspense, romance and mystery are some of the aspects of movies that  adolescents get attracted to (Chauhan, 2011). Norris and Sargent (2002) found out that a surprising number of young teenagers watch extremely violent movies. In countries like America, an average child sees 200,000 violent acts and 16,000 murders on TVby age 18 (Donoughp, 2006; Rideout, Foehr and Roberts, 2010; Bickham, 2006 and Strasburger, 2002). The situation in Nigeria is not different; most children between 5 and 20 years of age spend over 6 hours daily on entertainment media which include

television and movies (Ukoha, 2013). In Nigeria, movies are some of the agents of socialisation and it has been observed that

adolescents spend not less than 75 hours a week watching movies.This figure exceeds by far the amount of time spent in school (Wood, 1983). In other words, during a period of one week alone, a child would have watched a hundred killings; armed robbery, prostitution, rape, sex, violence

and fight (Wood, 1985). Wood (1985), observes that these movies influence the behaviour of the adolescents greatly. This is of concern because movies affect the behaviour of adolescents both positively and negatively. While there exist movies that celebrate heroism and gallantry, the issue that concerns many today is the increasing rate of movies that portray cruelty, torture, killings, homicide, kidnap, terrorism and sexual escapades (Okon, 2015). Violence has become a common theme in most movies, even in G-rated (suitable for

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