CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
New product development process allows firms to deal with progressively intensive competition when facing challenges from rapidly changing market condition. Companies try to gain sustainable competitive advantages with continues innovation. These effort are critical for the companies because introducing a new product to the market is expensive and challenging due to acquiring new knowledge and technologies and implementing new processes.
New Product development is a business and engineering term, which describes the complete process of bringing a new product to the market. In other words, Product development is the process of designing, creating, and marketing an idea or product. The product can either be one that is new to the marketplace or one that is new to your particular company, or an existing product that has been improved. In many instances, a product will be labeled new and improved when substantial changes have been made.
According to Kotler(2006:633), a product is anything that can be offered to a market to satisfy a want or need. However, product is much more than just a physical object. It is the complete bundle of benefits or satisfactions that buyers perceive, they will obtain if they purchase the product. It is the sum of all the physical, psychological, symbolic, and service attributes.
In the words of Stanton, (2001:121), a Product is a set of tangible and intangible attributes which the buyer may accept as offering wants-satisfaction. For instance, in the Nigerian Soft drink industry we have products such as Malta Guinness from Guinness Nigeria Plc, Maltina drink from Nigerian Breweries Plc, Mirinda from 7 UP Nig. Plc; in the detergent sector, there are Elephant Blue Detergent from PZ industries
Plc, and Omo, Key Soap, Loyco, Blue Band, Lipton Yellow Label Tea, Knorr (Acquired in Dec. 2005 from Cabury), Pears Baby Care, Lux, Vaseline, Close Up, etc from Unilever Nigeria Plc. Also in the financial sector, there is Master Card from UBA Plc, Child Trust and Maxi-yield from Sterling Bank Plc, to mention but a few.
A product is similar to goods in accounting. Goods are physical objects that are available in the marketplace. This differentiates them from a service which is a nonmaterial product. The term goods is used primarily by those that wish to abstract from the details of a given product. As such it is useful in accounting and economic models. The term product is used primarily by those that examine the details and richness of a specific market offering. As such it useful to marketers, managers, and quality control specialists.
A “man” can also be an “experience”, which like .a service is intangible. However an experience is unique to the receiving individual based upon their history Example: amusement parks offer rides (product), acceptance of credit card ‘(service), and audience participation at the dolphin how (experience). My value the dolphin show is different from yours, and the extent to which I value it trade for it (money).
Joe (2008:53) states that such “items as legal and medical services, hair cut, vehicle repairs and classroom teaching also constitute product, even if they are not physical in nature. It is perhaps in consideration of this double nature of product and also in view of the fact that purchasing implies selling that Kotler (2003:342) defines a product as “anything that can be offered to the market for attention, acquisition, use or consumption that might satisfy a want or need”. He added that product “includes physical objects, services, persons, places organization and ideas”, noting that persons and organizations can attract buyers’ attention and that a person’s records or ideas for instance can be purchased, while an organization can be promoted.