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PROJECT TOPIC: THE EFFECT OF PHOTOGRAPH IN NEWSPAPER AND MAGAZINE COVER PAGE (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN TRIBUNE NEWSPAPER AND TELL MAGAZINE)

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0    Introduction

1.1    Background to the Study

          Graphics especially photographs at glance trap the readers. If a photo is interesting enough, the reader will stop to it and read the caption and if is interesting you will move a little bit to read the headlines of the article. If the beginning of the article is catching enough the reader will read all of it. In view of this, only few of readers read an article but almost all the photos get noticed. Photos are of primary importance when selling magazine or newspaper. The photos are actually magazine or newspaper marketing.

          Print media are over the years compete and struggling to survive and one basic tactic newspapers and magazines have often used to put message across is the use of photographs to draw readers attention. Photographs are used extensively by newspapers and magazines to convey information and advertise products and services. Practical application of photography is found in nearly every human endeavor from astronomy to medical diagnosis to industrial quality control. Photography extends human vision into the realm of objects that are invisible because they are too small or too distant, or events that occur too rapidly for the naked eye to detect. A camera can be used in locations too dangerous for humans. Photographs can also be objects of art that explore the human condition and provide aesthetic pleasure. For millions of people, photography is a satisfying hobby or a rewarding career.

          The public wants to spend more time with pictures than text, and the immediacy and availability of photography makes that possible. Consumers want a photo with every story they read, but that it can cause strong emotions since a photograph can tell an entire story.

          While photo journalism is a particular form of journalism (the collecting, editing, and presenting of news material for publication) that creates images in order to tell a news story. It is now usually understood to refer only to still images, but in some cases the term also refers to video used in broadcast journalism. Photojournalism is distinguished from other close branches of photography (e.g., documentary photography, social documentary photography, street photography or celebrity photography) by complying with a rigid ethical framework which demands that the work is both honest and impartial whilst telling the story in strictly journalistic terms. Photojournalists create pictures that contribute to the news media. The study however examines the influence of photographs on newspaper readers in Ifelodun Local Government.

1.2    Statement of the Problem

          There is no doubt about the fact that graphics especially photographs take two dimensions in newspaper either tell the story in all (Stand Alone Photo) or to complement story. It is important to realize that for information or photographs to have any substantial impact, influence and effect on the readers it must be well snapped and pass message.

          Despite the fact that photojournalists are using their camera to tell stories by bringing the source of the events closest to their readers, yet it needs to be interpreted most of the time even the STAND ALONE PHOTO need some wording to accompany it, called caption. However, a good photograph without caption may mean little or no meaning to some readers.

          Therefore, in this research efforts shall be made on how photographs can provide message either with or without caption in reporting events and how it influences the readers.

1.3    Objectives of the Study

v    To examine whether photographs make message more effective or not?

v    To examine the extent which photojournalists use their camera to tell stories?

v    To know how newspaper houses use photograph in reporting an event?

v    To know if readers find photograph interesting?

v    To know how photograph capture and retain the attention of newspaper readers?

v    To know how headlines and photo scanners find photograph interesting  and holding their attention?

1.4    Research Questions

Ø  Do readers find photograph interesting in newspapers while reading?

Ø  To what extent does photograph caption retain the attention of

          newspaper readers?

Ø  How often do newspapers use photographs in their daily publication?

Ø  Do photograph aids readers comprehsion?

Ø  Do newspaper readers prefere photograph to text?

Ø  Does size of photographs influence readers viewing habit?

Ø  Does cover page photographs draw attension more than other pages?

Ø  Does size of photographs influence readers viewing?

Ø  Do readers recall news accompanying with photograph than news without photograph?

Ø  Does possition of photographs in newspaper page draw readers different attention?

Ø  What type of photographs draw attension easily?

1.5    Significance of the Study

Journalists: The significant of this study aims at revealing to the media practitioners on the benefit of photograph to readers. It will assist the media practitioners to know their role in keeping public informed through their camera.

Students: students of mass communication and other related field will know

the role of photographs in newspaper production.

Researchers: It will further enable other researchers to continue from the aspect which this study has not covered.

1.6 Scope of the Study

          The primary objective of the project is to examine the influence of photographs on newspaper readers. This topic itself has been limited to the use of Ifelodun local government as a case study.

1.7 Limitation to the Study

          Wide research of this nature cannot be carried out without some constrains, this constrains pose a lot of limitations to this work.

Time: Duration for the research work is relative1y short while stress emanated from other academic activities is also another constrain.

Material: Little materials are also available because the work is relatively new.

Financial: Financial constrain poses another challenges as most of information are gathered through newspapers

1.8 Definition of the Terms

Influence: It means the impact of something on somebody.

Newspaper: This is written form of disseminating information to the masses such as which contains articles, news photo, advert and other form of opinions usually printed daily for the public consumption.

Graphic Communication: As the name suggests is communication through graphics and graphical aids. It is the 1iocess of creating, producing, and distributing material incorporating words wd images to convey news, message, data, concepts, and especially in newspaper.

Photographs: Photograph or photo is an image created by light falling on a light-sensitive surface, usually photographic film or an electronic image such as a CCD or a CMOS chip.


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