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PROJECT TOPIC: DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AN AUTOMATIC SOIL MOISTURE IRRIGATION SYSTEM USING MICROCONTROLER

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Background of the Study

Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the land or soil. It is used to assist in the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and re vegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall. When a zone comes on, the water flows through the lateral lines and ultimately ends up at the irrigation emitter (drip) or sprinkler heads. Many sprinklers have pipe thread inlets on the bottom of them which allows a fitting and the pipe to be attached to them. The sprinklers are usually installed with the top of the head flush with the ground surface. When the water is pressurized, the head will pop up out of the ground and water the desired area until the valve closes and shuts off that zone. Once there is no more water pressure in the lateral line, the sprinkler head will retract back into the ground. Emitters are generally laid on the soil surface or buried a few inches to reduce evaporation losses.

Water is a resource that all living species need. It is therefore very precious and has to be used with moderation to be preserved for the generations to come. Agriculture is an industry that uses a lot of water. Most of the time, this resource is not used


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