CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
A robot is a mechanical or virtual intelligent agent that can perform tasks automatically or with guidance, typically by remote control. In practice a robot is usually an electro mechanical machine that is guided by computer and electronic programming. Robots can be autonomous, semi-autonomous or remotely controlled. Robotics can be described as the current pinnacle of technical development. Robotics is a confluence science using the continuing advancements of mechanical engineering, material science, sensor fabrication, manufacturing techniques, and advanced algorithms.
There is no one definition of robot which satisfies everyone and many people have their own. For example Joseph Eagleburger, a pioneer in industrial robotics, once remarked: can’t define a robot, but I know one when I see one.” According to the Encyclopedia Britannica a robot is “any automatically operated machine that replaces human effort, though it may not resemble human beings in appearance or perform functions in a humanlike manner.” The word “robot” comes from the Czech word “Robota,” which means “slave-like labor “ or “forced-work”. Merriam-Webster describes a robot as a “machine that looks like a human being and performs various complex acts (as walking or talking) of a human being”, or a “device that automatically performs complicated often repetitive tasks”, or a “mechanism guided by automatic controls”, Robotics can be defined as the science or study of the technology primarily associated with the design, fabrication, theory, and application of robots. While other fields contribute the mathematics, the techniques, and the components, robotics creates the magical end product. The practical applications of robots drive development of robotics and drive advancements in other sciences in turn. Crafters and researchers in robotics study more than just robotics.
When societies first began developing, nearly all production and effort was the result of’ human labor, as well as with the aid of semi- and fully domesticated animals. As mechanical means of performing functions were discovered, and mechanics and complex mechanisms were developed, many tasks began to require less for human labor.
Machinery was initially used for repetitive functions, such as lifting water and grinding grain. With technological advancement more complex machines were slowly developed, such as those invented by Hero of Alexandria (in Egypt) in the 1st century AD and the first half of the second millennium AD.