Crop yield is reduced by mainly due to attack of pest, diseases and weeds. Chemical control is the popular method adopted for controlling most insects, weed and diseases. The chemical are applied either by spraying or dusting. Spraying is one of the most effective and efficient techniques for applying small volume of spray liquid to protect crops. In conventional methods, manually operated low and high volume hydraulic sprayer and power operated hydraulic sprayer with long boom, long lances or spray gun are used to carry fluid at different targets. In this method, the time and labor required is more. It is difficult to spray the pesticide uniformly and effectively throughout the crop by conventional method of spraying. Though this method gives good pest control, it consumes large volume of liquid per plant, great amount of labour and time are required. Also drip losses are more owing to concern towards protecting environment from pollution by excessive use of pesticide and to economies the spraying method, suitable alternative should be identified.
In Nigeria, diverse farm mechanization scenario as in country due to varied size of the farm holdings and socio economic disparities. Most farmers in Nigeria are small and marginal land holder. The spraying operation is done by knapsack sprayer which consumes more time and energy.
Tractor operated sprayers are difficult for adaptation by the farmer due to existing cropping patterns available for field size, field condition during the rainy season. To overcome these problem requirements for better adapting in the view of a single wheel driven boom sprayer is a better option due to its medium cost and small size implying maneuverability in the small land holding.
Single wheel driven boom sprayers can fulfill the mechanization gap to do spraying operation at the faster rate. This shows there is an urgent need to introduce mechanical sprayer in Nigeria farm. The single wheel driven boom sprayer should be small for easy maneuverability and less expensive for farmers as best source of spraying operation.
1.1 Statement of the problems
The back mounted knapsack sprayer is associated with the following problems
i. It consumes more time and labor during spraying operation
ii. The output is low
iii. The uniformity and efficiency is inadequate
1.2 Objectives of the Project
The main objective of the research is to design, develop and evaluate a boom for a Knapsack sprayer. The specific objectives for the research are:
I. To design and fabricate a single wheel driven boom sprayer.
II. To evaluate the performance of a single wheel driven boom sprayer.
1.3 Justifications of the Project
The justications of the project are basically:
I. To control the growth of weeds not comporting with crop planted
II. To reduce human labor for controlling weed in the field
III. To improve the quality and quantity of the crop planted
To increase the income of the farmers.