1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Extraction is a process by which substance are removed for their original component or raw state. Hence, extraction of juice (juice extraction) may be defined as the process of crushing, squeezing and pressing of whole fruit in order to obtain the juice from fruits and reduce the bulkiness of the fruits to liquid and pulp; the juice is separated from the skin or chaff. To achieve juice extraction, force is needed and the force depends on the biological nature and structure of the fruit from which the juice is to be extracted. Juice extractors include: continuous screw expellers, halving and burring machine, roller-press, taglith-type extractor, plunger-type press and rotary juice extractor. Yields from any fruit juice process depends on good solids handling. Fruit extraction methods in our homes usually is crude; people apply pressure and squeeze fruits with hand and mouth in order to get the juice out of the fruit (for apples and citrus), other methods like peeling and eating raw (for fruits like pineapple, pawpaw and watermelon) are also adopted. These methods are primitive and consume both time and energy.
Extraction equipment should therefore be designed to handle high levels of solids content during separation. Removing the solid matter and pulp, and then clarifying the juice can control the colour, taste and overall quality of the end product. Hygienic problems due to local methods of preservation and juice extraction, time