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PROJECT TOPIC: THE PREVALENCE OF FUNGAL INFECTION AMONG THE PATIENTS

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Candeda: This is a yeast like fungi several of which cause disease in man about 90% of infection are to candida albicans, which is normally present in mouth, intestine and veginal it is responsible for the infection in the sites defense mechanisms (carousal 1990)

Candida abbacies usually appears as oval yeast like cell that reproduce by budding however in infected areas. Filamentous hyphare plus pseudolyphae (which consist of elongated yeast cells that remain attached to each other many also be seen the yeast is easily grown at 250c 40 37 0c on sabouraudis glucose agar and if grown on cor a meal agar at 250c the organism can produce many characteristic thick walled chlamydospore Van leeuweuhoed (2 000) candida albicans is measured about 2.5 to 4.0 wm in diameter which can gives rise to pseudomycellun, in the body it has no sexual form the body it has no sexual form in poor medic at  temperature of 2b0c it produces thick wall and resting cells is about 7 to 17 m in test positive in maminaliam serum it has the ability to split urear. it is pathogenic to rabbits. guinea Pig s and  with where it cause abscesses in the kidney when  give intran Veroush (Eleke, 2002).

Oral candidacies oral candidacies also called oral thrush) occurs and most frequently  in the new born and is probably acquired during passage through and infected  vagina the yeast appears as a creamy grade membrane covering the tongue and appears able to produce  disease only  because  of the absence of their resident normal flora (Prescott et al; 1994) if thrush has not occurred by the 3rd day of life it is likely that it will appear but it should occur which will usually  disappear without treatment as other members of the normal flora are acquired

Oral thrush in order children or Adults may occur as a result  of endocrine disturbance or ceutaninosis (Particularity a deficiency of rib flauin as a complication of diabeta, as a  result of poor oral hyepene or following the administration of corticosteroides or autibutics oral thrush also occur in bottle feed infants which the magnification of my white patches cowering red raw areas of mucous manbrance vanities , vagines cendiass is seen most frequents in women with diabetes, milieus deny pregnamai or following prolonged antibiotic therapy. The prominent symptom is a yellow, milk, veginals discharge yeast cells and pseudo my cell can be found on the mucous membrane and such infections may result in an intense inflammation of the entire ingunal area according to Atlas 199: 13) he state vaginal thrush in pregnant women  are susceptible here with production of whish discharge with a pH below 5.2. Alimentary candidacies. Alimentary candidacies may follow essentially any of the predisposing conditions listed for adult oral thrush; however the majority of cases occur as a result of prolonged broad  spectrum  antibiotics therapy which destoirys a large part of the normal flora of the intestine. The organisms may also cause interse inflammation of the parinal region the region around the arws and may spread to the and thing  coetaneous are systemic candidacies infection of the skin by Candida usually occurs in those with metabolic disorders in those whose obesity result in continuously most tools of skin or in persons in whom part of the body are kept moist under surgical dressings According to Prescott et al (1999, 18)  systemic candidacies is exlvecnely but in debilitated person or those receiving immuno suppresure drugs sandida albicans can cause urinary trait infection endocarditis and meningitis chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is also a rare syndrome in which the skin mucous membranes  hair and nails become infected, such infections appears to occur in persons with T. cell defects manifested by their inability to respond to Candida certigens, in addition to vaging yeast infections the acid environment of the veginal and the proliferation of normal vaginal bacterial limited its  growth when the environment of the vegina changes, situations that change the environment  of the birth control pills. Which often change the vaginal pH or taking bread spectrum cutibioties such as tertiary cline which kills the normal vaginal bacteria in addition, patients with Aids of uncontrolled eddiabetes often develop yeast infections.


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