1.1 Background to the Study
Health related infections are the major problems of public health in many nations of the world, which ultimately cause an increase in the morbidity, mortality, and additional costs in health care settings (Mauldin et al 2010; Defez et al, 2008 and Llata et al, 2009). Ensuring hand hygiene is therefore one of the basic means preventing the spread of such infections. In 1983, Semmelweis highlighted that cleansing of contaminated hands with antiseptic products before and after contact with patients may reduce health related infections (Semmelweis I. 1988). Thereafter, Centre for Disease Control and Prevention published the first formal guidelines on hand washing practices in hospitals (Garner JS, Favero MS. 1986), followed by guidelines from the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC) (Larson et al, 1995).
Corona viruses are common viruses that most people get sometime in their life and may also infect animals. Human coronaviruses (hCoV) which has been globally trending for over a month now usually causes upper respiratory tract illnesses. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV) that occurred way back in 2003 served as a reminder to this newly emerging zoonotic coronaviruses which has the potential to transmit from person to person and to cause severe human illnesses. Novel coronavirus (nCoV), described as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), is a particular strain different from any other known hCoV with a possibility of zoonotic transmission. However, Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (2014) revealed that investigations was carried out to figure out the reservoir and source of infection, route of transmission to humans, symptoms, prevention, severity and clinical effects with gradually increasing number of reported cases on daily basis.
There has been a rapid international response following the news of this new virus from Wuhan, China on the 12th of February 2020 which has now spread to every nook and cranny of the world. An interim case definition was developed rapidly by WHO to ensure that a systematic approach is followed for appropriate identification and investigation of suspected cases. The body has also made arrangement for disbursing huge amount of money for the prevention and cure of this pandemic disease now known as COVID-19 to the high risk affected nations of the world.