CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background of the Study Man is a social being and interacts with people which may not be as fruitful as desired. Within the society there are individuals from different background, with different perspectives and approaches to life. This gives rise to opposing viewpoints, disagreement, competitions, arguments, suspicions, pain etc. Consequently, it is inevitable for conflict to exist. In fact, conflict is a part and parcel of everyday life and each individual enters into some type of conflict in his/her life. Thus Reece and Brandt (2006) defined conflict as people striving for their preferred outcome which if attained prevents others from achieving their own preferred outcome thereby resulting in hostility and breakdown in human relation. According to Johnansen (2012) and Kelly (2006), conflict is a result of perceived threat to one’s needs, interest and/or concern and has something to do with arms, fighting a war, a struggle between opposing principles or aims, a clash of feeling or interest. For Carnevals, Pruit, and Seilheimer (2007) conflict is a complex process affected by dispositional, contextual and inter personal factors. The definitions indicate that conflict is multidimensional and so is of many types and varied causes. An obvious cause of conflict is disagreement over issues that lead to competition and struggle for scarce resources because of perceived threat to one’s interests. Specific causes depend on the environment and conflict could be found in all areas of life including family, workplace, and organizations/institutions. Organizational| institutional conflicts result mainly from the struggle for organizational resources. Workplace conflict can also result from poor communication, lack of employee motivation and/or unequal treatment in terms of allocation of duties/responsibility and authority or in the distribution of benefits (Morrison, 2008).