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PROJECT TOPIC: EFFECT OF NOSE POLLUTION ON THE HEALTH OF THE PEOPLE OF UYO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF AKWA IBOM STATE

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background of Study

Noise is defined as unwanted sound (Anton, 1979).

It is produced by a sound causing vibrations and propagated as waved in the form of pressure vibrations and termed sound waves if they fall within the range capable of exciting the sense of hearing.

Noise is also commonly defined as being unwelcome sound (Hawel, 1992). Some people enjoy noise while others see it as a disturbance.

It follows from obvious facts that what is one man’s noise may be another man’s music some people in the city is a big problem and as such of which necessary measures must be taken to reduce on control it.

The noise produced by motor vehicles aim planes, plants and factories and other human activities is fast becoming more than a nuisance and is beginning to assume a proportion of major health hazard both physically and mentally.

Noise pollution is therefore any undesirable sound that is a nuisance or is harmful to a persons. It has to do with the contamination of pleasant sound or any sound undesired by the recipient. It could be in terms of loudness of music, bulldozer operations, market noise, barking of dogs, hooting of horns by taxi car drivers, motor park music, churches or sound from air craft engines, especially the supersonic ones at landing process. In a situation where a jet air craft takes off at close range, it produces noise of about 160 decibels and this could damage one’s hearing capacity (Anjai Obi, 2001).

Noise level are measured in decibels (db) using a sound pressure level meter called the decibel meter, people exposed to 95-100 decibels of sound for extended periods may suffer from physical and emotional discounter and deafness.

Whispering produces about 20 decibels of sound while natural conversation is around 60 decibels. Sound pressure becomes painful at 120 dbs and can kill at 180 decibels (Ekuri and Eze 2001).

1.2   Statement of the Problem 

Noise pollution has been one of the environmental problems with in Uyo Local Government Area. Taking a look at the Uyo main town, one would find that the whole town is polluted with noise from various sources. Some of these sources of noise pollution include market, road traffic, noise from siren, disco homes, explosives, churches, wedding and mechanic shops, machines of various types producing various noise and barking dogs.

Could these be ways of combating noise pollution within the city and without?

1.3   Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this research study was investigating the causes/sources of noise pollution within Uyo Local Government Area. The Study will also seek to investigate the effect of noise pollution on the people of Uyo Local Government Area.

It will also offer some useful recommendation that could reduce the effect of noise pollution. The study will also attempt to answer questions on whether noise pollution has some effect on the sense organs (ear), concentration of human being and communication.

1.4   Research Questions

The study was girded by the following research questions:

  1. What are the causes/sources of noise pollution in Uyo Local Government Areas
  2. Is there any effect of noise pollution on human health?
  3. Is there any effect of noise pollution on the human sense organs (ear)?
  4. How does noise pollution affect communication in Uyo L.G.A.?
  5. How can noise pollution be controlled?

1.5   Significance of the Study

This study was to find out the effect of noise pollution on the health of the people of Uyo L.G.A. the study would also be useful to the government of decided on where to locate contain enterprises and also help in planning the local government area. The research study would help the state government in policy making on where to locate schools, markets, parks and other places of public interest.

The result of this work will suggest to individuals and the government possible ways of combating noise pollution within and without Uyo main town.

Lastly, this research work would provide a review source for students of environmental education and future researchers wishing to investigate further on similar students.

1.6   Basic Assumptions

The following assumption were made during the study:

  1. Noise pollution was assumed to affect the health of the people in Uyo Local Government Area.
  2. It was assumed that the responses made by the subjects were true about the effect of noise pollution on the health of the people.
  3. It was assumed that the areas under survey were the true representation of the areas in Uyo Local Government Area.
  4. Lastly, it was assumed that the method of data collection and analysis procedure produced accurate result so that the findings of the study were true and genuine.

1.7   Limitation of the Study

The scope of this study was affected by the following limitation.

  1. Only sample schools were selected for the survey.
  2. Some interviewees were not ready to attend to the interviewer, they were demanding for money.
  • This work faced time and money constraints.

1.8   Definition of Terms

  1. Pollution is an undesirable change in the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of our air, land and water that may or will harmfully affect human life or that of other desirable species, our industrial processes, living condition, cultural assets or that may or will waste or deteriorate our raw material resources (United State National Research Council, 1965).

Again, pollution is the direct or indirect alterations of the physical, thermal, biological or radioactive properties of any part of the environment in such a way as to create hazards or danger to health safely or welfare of any living species.

  1. Pollutants

Any substance that causes pollution is called pollutant.

  1. Noise

Is produced by irregular disturbance, which set up an irregular trend of rarefaction and compression in the air medium.

  1. Health

Is the state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, not merely absence of disease or infirmity (WHO, 1947).


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