CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION Tin mining industry which is also the largest producer of columbite in Jos plateau state started in 1902 (Adegboye, 2012). The mining of tin has been largely responsible for profound changes in the landscape and in the social economic structure of study area (Adegboye, 2012). Limited arable land is experienced in Jos plateau area, according to (Patterson, 1986) this is due to the high rate of surface mining. (Scholar, 1979) revealed that mined soils are poorer in agricultural value compared to adjoining natural land. Crops grown on such mined land are of low agricultural value, quick maturing and low-nutrient demanding, such as acha, dauro, maize, millet and Irish potato. (Calvert, 1990) revealed that the indiscriminate mining on the Jos plateau, led to many parts of the area being exposed to erosion and reduces the available arable land for crop production. The volume of mineral tripped off during mining reduces the nutrient present in the soil (Adegboye, 2012). Jos South local government area is an extensively mined area, which was dominated by use of heavy earth – moving equipment and draglines. As a result, the zone is characterized by deep excavations and dumping of high over burden, mine ponds, mine tailings and slurry wash deposits (Olaniyan, 1998; Musa et. al., 2011). According to (Gyang et. al., 2010), the major problem of the area still remains the devastated and de-vegetated land and mine spoils; depriving the inhabitants of fertile farmland. The deep mining which is an excavation of underlying sand has created mining pits, man-made lakes, pools and ponds which have great effect on both the people and agricultural practices. Mining ponds have always been death traps for people and animals (Davis, 2001).