1.1 Background to the Study
Food insecurity and armed conflict are two major problems that have aroused the attention of international institutions, political analysts, and governments in the country. Over several decades, resources have been mobilized to reduce the number of hunger in the world, particularly in developing countries.
Nigeria as a nation state is under a severe internal socio-economic and security threat. At a more general level, the threat has special economic, political and environmental dimensions. Each of these dimensions has greatly affected the nation’s stability and can be traced to the Fulani-herdsmen crisis, ethnic militant armies, ethnic and religious conflicts, poverty, insurgency, armed robbery, corruption, economic sabotage and environmental degradation [Damba, 2007].
Farmer-herdsmen conflict has remained the most influential resource-use conflict in Nigeria (Rashid 2012). Fulani and farmers co-existed for a long period but such coexistence has never been without tension because it demands an alternative dispute resolution of rival interests. Conflict can break out suddenly when livestock is poorly controlled and when herds wander on to cultivated fields. This has always had a tendency to occur at critical periods in the annual cycle, particularly during sowing when herds are late in leaving agricultural lands and during harvests, if they return too early. Clashes occur when agricultural activities hinder the movement of herds and cut off their access to water or pastures (Shetima and Usman 2008).