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From the beginning of time drugs have used in every society as human beings search for substance that would sustain and protect them also act on the nervous system to produce pleasurable sensation. (Sunstroke 2005). All

All segment of society are affected as no population group is immune to substance abuse and its effects; men and women, people of all ages, racial and ethnic group and levels of education drink, smoke, and use illicit drugs. {Dennis and other (2002). Sunstroke (2005) asserted that these drugs are used for pleasure, utility, Amishe miracle Garba. According to world Health organization (WHO), substance abuse refers to the harmful or hazardous use of psycho active substances, including alcohol and illicit drug.

Psychoactive substance use can lead to dependence syndrome which is a continuous, repeated and persistent use of the substance despite its harmful consequences; leading to a high priority beings given to the use of the substance to the deferent of other activities and obligations (WHO, 2014).

There is the growing fear and apprehension that the future of our semi urban and rural society is highly at risk. Various research reports have confirmed that Nigeria youths in both urban and rural areas and of different socio-economic backgrounds have indulged in the use and abuse of drugs and substances (Abdullahi, 2003). When this fact is viewed against the background that youths are often larger in number as compared to other age groups in any society, much cause for alarm and concern is raised.

(Alcohol and tobacco have traditionally been used for ritual, religious, and recreational purposes worldwide. Alcohol have been served as a beverage to sooth the body served as medicine to induce sleep and reduce anxiety as anesthetic to kill pain, served for pleasure in marriages, naming, political, festival and burial ceremonies all over the world).

Individuals are attracted to drugs because drugs help them adapt to over changing environment. Adolescents are at particular risk for substance abuse because of their need for development (craven and hirnce 2003).  Smoking, drinking, and taking drugs reduce tension and frustration, relieve boredom and fatigue and in some cases help adolescents to cope with the harsh realities of their world (Sunstroke (2005).  According to owumanani ogoloma 2015) Adolescents use drugs for many reasons, some use drugs to stay awake to study for exams, to satisfy their curiosity as a right of passage in to puberty, to  prove sexuality, others use drugs as a result of peer pressure, the strong influence of media adverts, and rock music some others use drugs to rebel against authority and a way of fitting or belonging to a gang.

Every aspect of the youth and youth life is worth studying. In the world to day, the youth face on the one hand, enormous challenges particularly the phenomenon of drug and substance abuse. These two broad and contrasting facts or social realities about the youth to day reset a paradox. In the first instance, there exist unlimited prospects for accomplishments in form of growing educational pursuits, glowing rates of wide internet access, computer and it services utilization, e.t.c. While enormous and ever growing problems in the second instance in form of unemployment, poverty, insecurity, crime deviance, electoral malpractices and drug substance abuse render the laudable prospects for accomplishments punctured. Very disturbingly among the challenges facing the youth to day, drug and substance abuse features prominently in trapping large numbers of youth in trapping large numbers of youth in Nigeria (Radda, 2006). Although relationship between drug and substance use and crime, its connections to violent behavior and other social vices too have established (omeiza, 2010). Drugs and substances effect the quality of life those involved, are the major destroyer of youth usefulness on earth (UNODC, 2011). With Nigeria’s return to democracy, the issue of drugs uses abuse and depended generally became very pronounced especially during political campaigns, rallies and during electrons.                                     


Substance abuse still remains one of the major problems in the world (oluwale, olatunji, & olufunlayo, 2011). With millions of people especially the youth, abusing legal and illegal drugs (Jug, Glenn, Eliore, & Ellen 2008). Substance abuse has negative physical, psychological and society (Mohammad, 2014). According to Ahmed (2012). The ill effects of substance abuse include medical problems academic problems, conflicts, increase in occultism. Substance abuse among the youth has great potential to cause academic difficulties and social as well as employed problem s later in life (Usman & Usman, 2012). A study conducted in Minna, Niger State (Nigeria), showed that drug abuse and violence were correlated and this has made politicians to use the youth in casing violence for political interest. Consequently, this makes youth to indulge activity in substance abuse especially in the northern part of Nigeria (Usman & Usman 2012). Therefore, it is against this background that this study is set to find out the causes and effects of substance abuse in College Of Health Sciences And Technology Idah, Local Government Area Of Kogi State.  

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