1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
David (2012) stated that, A pit toilet is a types of toilet that collect human faeces in a hole in the ground, they either use water or not water one to three liters per flush with pour – flush put latrines. When properly but and maintained they can decrease the spread of diseases by reducing the environment from open defecation. This decreases the transfer of pathogens between facieses and foods by flies. These pathogens are major causes of infectious diarrhea and intestinal worm infections. (Susan 2011) infectious diarrhea result in about 0.7 million deaths in children under five years old in 2011 and 250 million lost school days. Pit toilet are the lowest method of spreading faeces from peoples.
A pit toilet generally consists of three major part: a hole in ground, a slab or floor with small hole, and a shelter. The shelter is often known as an outhouse the pit is typically at least 3 meters (10 fect) deep and 1m (3.2 fect) across the World Health Organization recommends they may be but a reasonable distance from the house balancing issues of easy access versus that of small distance from the ground water and surface water should be as large as possible to decrease the risk of ground water pollution. The hole in the slab should be not be larger than 25 centimeters (98) incher to prevented children from family in. Light should be prevented from entering the pit to reduce access by flies. This may required the use of did to cores the hole in the floor when not in use. When the pit fills to within 0.5 meters (1.6fect) or a new pit constructed and the shelter removed or re-built at a new location. The management of the fecal sludge removed from the pit is complication. There both environment and health risk if not done properly (WHO 2005).
A lot of public toilet poses very serious problems to the people of Birnin Gwari town Kaduna State and also to other countries the problems of open deprecation which some people often refers to as going to the bush or bush shitting has persistently been difficult to address in Birnin Gwari town because of the unavailability of good public toilets and home toilet both in the cities and Local Government Communities or village areas. A lot of people live without proper sanitation in Birnin Gwari and those people have to decide on daily basis how to organize defection without felling ashamed or fear.
A pit latrines may or not be enjoyable experience to use. Problems may occurs when the pit latrine is shared by too many people, is not clearly daily and not emptied. When the pit is full in such cases, flies and odour can be a massive nuisance also, in such latrine are usually dark places which are difficult to keep clean. Often hand washing facilities are missing for those reasons, shared tries. Also there might be cultural pertinences for open defecation and those may be difficult to overcome with unattractive toilet designs.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Sunsan (2013) viewed that pit toilet are one of the most common human excreta disposal system in low income countries and their use in on the rise as countries aim to meet the sanitation-related target of the millennium development goals. There is concern how over that the leaching of chemical and microbial contaminant from pit toilet to nearby ground water may negatively affect human health.
A lot of public toilet poses very serious problems to the people including the residents of Birnin Gwari Town, the problem of open defecation which some people often refer to as going to the bush or bush shitting has persistently been difficult to address in Birnin Gwari Town Kaduna State is that embarked the researcher to carry out this investigation in order to educate people of Birnin Gwari to know the impact of the public pit latrine system and its associated problems stated the study will sought answers to the following research question.