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PROJECT TOPIC: KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS OF THE EFFECTS OF NARCOTIC DRUG USE AMONG STUDENTS OF FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC IDAH

Project Body:


CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE INFORMATION

Narcotics are addictive drugs that reduce the user's perception of pain and induce euphoria (a feeling of exaggerated and unrealistic well-being). The English word narcotic is derived from the Greek narkotikos , which means "numbing" or "deadening." Although the term can refer to any drug that deadens sensation or produces stupor, it is commonly applied to the opioids—that is, to all natural or synthetic drugs that act like morphine. It also referred medically to any psychoactive compound with sleep-inducing properties.  it has since associated with opiates and opioids, commonly morphine and heroin, as well as derivatives of many of the compounds found within raw opium latex. The primary three are morphine, codeine, and thebaine (while thebaine itself is only very mildly psychoactive, it is a crucial precursor in the vast majority of semi-synthetic opioids, such as oxycodone). Legally speaking, the term "narcotic" is imprecisely defined and typically has negative connotations. Statutory classification of a drug as a narcotic often increases the penalties for violation of drug control statutes. For example, although federal law classifies both cocaine and amphetamines as "Schedule II" drugs, the penalty for possession of cocaine is greater than the penalty for possession of amphetamines because cocaine, unlike amphetamines, is classified as a narcot       Stern, J., and C. Ippolit  (2013)

Narcotics can be dangerous because of their potential for deadly interactions with other medications as well as their potential for dependence and addiction. Narcotics should never be combined with other types of drugs that depress the central nervous system.

These categories of drugs include the following:

  • alcohol
  • benzodiazepine tranquilizers, including such drugs as diazepam (Valium), alprazolam (Xanax), and chlordiazepoxide (Librium)
  • barbiturates, used to treat insomnia and anxiety , including such medications as pentobarbital (Nembutal) and mephobarbital (Mebaral)
  • antihistamines, even over-the-counter cold or allergy medications, which can interact with narcotics to intensify drowsiness and repress breathing. WHO (2014)

Narcotics can also interact with certain herbal preparations to cause central nervous system depression. Anyone taking narcotics for pain relief should avoid using herbal preparations containing kava kava ( Piper methysticum ), valerian ( Valeriana officinalis ), chamomile ( Matricaria recutita ), or lemon balm ( Melissa officinalis ), as these herbs intensify the tendency of opioids to cause drowsiness and slow down breathing. Ginseng ( Panax ginseng ) should also be avoided because it interferes with the pain-relieving qualities of opioid medications.

Sense of "any illegal drug" first recorded 1926, Amer.Eng. The adj. is first attested c.1600. There are many different types of narcotics. The two most common forms of narcotic drugs are morphine and codeine. Both are synthesized from opium for medicinal use. The most commonly used drug for recreational purposes created from opium is heroin. Synthesized drugs created with an opium base for use in pain management are fentanyl, oxycodone, tramadol, demarol, hydrocodone, methadone, and hydromorphone. New forms of pain medication are being created regularly. The newest drug to come out in 2014 is zohydro, an intense dosage of hydrocodone medication, the strongest yet created for pain management.  Stern, J., and C. Ippolit  (2013)


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