Tibia plateau is one of the most critical load bearing areas in the human body, fractures of the plateau affect knee alignment, stability and motion. Early detect and appropriated treatment of these fractures are critical for minimizing patient disability and reducing the risk of documented complications, particularly posttraumatic arthritis.
Sir Astley cooper first described fracture of proximal tibia in 1825. Anger treated most minimally displaced immobilization. Rasmussen introduced open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of tibia condylar fracture and Sarmiento popularized functional cast bracing of most tibia condylar fractures. (Abdel-Hamid MZ, et al, 2006).
1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Tibia plateau injuries were first described as Car Bumper fractures. Tibia plateau fracture are a diverse group of fractures that represent a wide spectrum of severity which ranges from simple injuries to complex fracture pattern that challenge even the most experienced surgeons.
Tibia plateau injury involves the articular surface of the proximal tibia. They are risk to the functional integrity of the knee. It occurs as a result of axial compressive forces alone or combined with varus or valgus stress on the knee. (Bennet W.F et al, J Ortho Trauma 1994).
1.3 RISK FACTOR
Although the most common causes of tibia plateau is a plateau is a valgus force with axial loading trauma can be direct or indirect.
1.4 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Tibia plateau fractures are service injuries and are common in high-impact sports like football, rugby and basketball. Twisting motions and vehicle accidents can also cause a tibia plateau injury.
It also explains how 60% of plateau fractures involve the lateral plateau, 15% medical plateau, 25% bicondylar lesions. Partial or complete ligamentous ruptures occur in 15-45%, medical lesion in about 5-37% of all tibia plateau fractures.
1.5 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study was to quantify the relationship between measures of the distal femur and those of the proximal tibia such that they can be used to aid in judging optional operative and non-operative reduction of tibia plateau fractures.
The aim is to demonstrate the importance of proper diagnosis, treatment of tibia plateau fracture and also helps in quantifying the method treatment to be used.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Fracture: It is the break in the continuity of a bone
Tibia Plateau: Is a break of the upper part of tibia (shim bone) that involve the knee joint.
Meniscus: Is a crescent-shaped fibrocartilaginous anatomical structure which partly divides a joint cavity
Valgus: Is a condition in which bone segment is angulated laterally away from body’s mid-line.
Varus: Towards the body’s mid-line.