Typhoid fever caused by salmonella entericaserotyphi (S. typhi) remains a major health problem globally. It affects about 21.7 million people, with 217,000 deaths occurring worldwide on annual basis (Crump &Minized, 2010). Transmission of the bacterium is mainly through ingestion of faccal contaminated food and water (Gonzalez, Marshall % Gunn, 2011).
Typhoid and paratyphoid germs are passed in the face and urine of infection is contracted after eating food or drinking beverages that have been handled by an infected person (Everest, Wain, Roberts &Dougan, 2010). The disease is characterized by prolonged fever, bacteria replication in the reticulo-endothelial system (RES) and significant inflammation of the bymphoid organs of the small intestine (Zhu, Lim & Chan, 2015).
In developing countries, typhoid fever causes at least 5% of all deaths with marked different rate where typhoid fever is endernic. The reasons for those differences is disease severity are not known but may be related to differences in health care facility, host immune responses genetic factors in the strains of salmonella enterical-seravortyphi circulating in area of endemicity (World Health Organization, 2008).
The occurrence of typhoid fever is a major threat globally with annual cases exceeds 20 million and approximately a quarter million deaths. The disease is mostly dominant in under developed and developing countries where sanitation is poor, mainly in part of Nigeria (Crump &Mintz, 2010).
The enteric fever is caused by the etiologic agent, salmonella enteric serotyphi (S. typhi) with early detection and medical prevalence, the seventy of the disease can be reduced and thus decrease the fatality rate.
However, the diagnosis of the diseases is commonly done with conventaional methods and widely test, which specificity and sensitivity are not that high (Olopoenia& King, 2010).
Furthermore, the tests are also limited by other factors of time, labour and cost which reduce its availability mainly in developing countries (Parent, 2014).
Typhoid fever is caused by salmonella typhi which affects only human, often causing serious systematic illness (Center for Disease Control, 2015)
Typhoid fever is a life threatening infection caused by the bacterium salmonella typhi. It is usually spread among the villages due to the negligence of poor food hygiene among the people (World Health Organization, 2018).
The typhoid is a worldwide important disease that causes the high prevalence among the society particularly in poorest people that doesn’ttakes a proper personal and environmental hygiene in their villages and towns (Nafi’u, 2018). So in view of that this project is to serve as blueprint in organizing survey that can be used for other researcher and health planner in the future. It is also to assist in greater measure in developing the positive behavior among the students of Maigwari Community Collage of Health Science and Technology, BirninGwari Local Government Kaduna State, by practicing proper environmental and personal hygiene which was determined that the deficiency of those practice are the major causes of the prevalence of typhoid fever.
The broad objective of this study is to know the causes of prevalence of typhoid fever among the students of Maigwari Community Collage of Health Science and Technology BirninGwari Local Government Kaduna State.
The specific objectives of this study are: