1.1 Background to the Study
Variations in the values of the measurement of the size and proportions as well as the normal functioning of the human body parameters are often considered as sign of good health. Variations such as; heart rate, respiratory rate, peripheral blood flow, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and so on vary from one individual to the other as result of control of function by autonomous nervous system. Changes in physiological function occur during adolescent spurt. For many years the relationship that exists between different parts of the body and height has been of great interest to anthropologist and physicians (Ozaslanet al., 2003; Fessler, 2005).
Human height or stature is the distance from the bottom of the feet to the top of the head in a human body standing erect. It is measured using a stadiometer usually in centimetres when using the metric system or feet and inches when using the imperial system (Carter, 2008). Growth has long been recognized as a measure of the heath of individuals, hence part of the reasoning for the use of growth charts. For individuals, as indicators of health problems, growth trends are tracked for significant deviations and growth is also monitored for significant deficiency from genetic expectations. Genetics is a major factor in determining the height of individuals, though it is far less influential in regard to differences among populations.
According to Mohantyet al.(2012) height is a fundamental unit used in assessing an individual’s growth and nutrition as well as calculating their body surface. It constitutes an essential element in the description of the human population. Average difference height is relevant to the measurement of the health and wellness (standard of living and quality of life) of populations (Bolton-Smith, 2000; Ali et al., 2000; Mohantyet al., 2001).
In every human, the heart rate reflects the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per unit of time that is, beats per minutes (BPM). This heart rate can vary considerably depending on the body’s physical needs, including the need to absorb oxygen and excrete carbon dioxide. Activities that can provoke change include; physical activities, sleep, anxiety, stress, illness, ingesting, and drugs. Marked changes in heart rate (HR) reaction occur during physical exercise and during physical training interventions among different sex of individuals. The changes in HR are primarily due to alterations in autonomic tone: parasympathetic tone slows down the HR, and sympathetic stimulation increases it (Tapanainen et al. 2002).