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PROJECT TOPIC: ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SWEET ORANGE (CITRUS SINENSIS) ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATE FROM WOUND INFETIONS

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ABSTRACT

The antibacterial activity of sweet orange(citrus smensin) on staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli isolated from would infection was studied. A total number of 100 wound sample were collected form different individual from different age range within 5-8years and examined,. The test organisms S auras and E coli were cultured separately on Nutrient and macconkey agar plate and incubated for 24 hrs at 37)c. the highest isolation of bacterial organisms was obtained in staphylococcus auras as 100 (32%) followed by Escherichia coli as 92 (29%) there were isolation of other organisms, Klebsiella species was 76 (24%) followed by pseudomonas 44 (14%) the average zone of inhibition of orange extract on S aureus    was 1.8 mm and E. coli was 1.9mm also out of 100 person with S. aureus 72 showed sensitive to orange extract and out of 92 person with E coli 77 were sensitive to orange extract. The average zone of inhibition  exhibited by these drug on S. aureus were 8.95mm for Drovid 6.74 mm for ciprofloxacin while on E coli the average zones of inhibition  were 8.63mm for Drovid 6.67mm for Enythrompcin 4.47mm for anbtpicillin and 6.57mm for ciprofloxacin. The  result of the sensitivity pathen of both orange extant and antibiotics on S aureus and E coli showed that some of the isolated organisms were susceptible  while some were resistance to both orange extract and antibiotics. The result should that the zone   of inhibition of the orange extract were minimal on both S. aureus and E coli when compared to the zone of inhibition of the tested antibiotics on both organisms through the inhibition level of orange  extract invitro (outside the body) is minimal, its active ingredient vitamin  C boosts the immune system invivo (insove the body) by increasing the production of B and T cells and other white blood cells including those that destroy micro organisms.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.O      Introduction

CHAPTER TWO

2.0              Literature Review

CHAPTER THREE

3.0              Material and methods

3.2.1           sterilization

3.2.2           procurement of sweet oranges

3.2.3           extraction of orange juice

3.2.4           preparation  of ourture media 

3.2.5           plating technique (streak method) for the isolation of bacterial organisms.

3.2.6           Microbial containing and microscopic work

3.2.7           Biochemical tests for identification of bacteria’s isolates

3.2.8           Preparation of disc or sensitivity testing o the orange extract.

3.2.9           Sensitivity disc testing using sweet orange extract on isolated organisms.

3.2.10       Antibiotic sensitivity disc testing on isolated bacterial organisms.

CHAPTER OUR

4.0              Result

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0       Discussion

CHAPTER SIX

6.0              Conclusion and recommendation

7.0              Reference

8.0              Appendix

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE 1

Plate court according to sex and age of population sampled.

TABLE 2

Number of groups of bacterial organisms isolated according to sex and age of population sampled.

T5ABLE 3

Perlimical test carried out for the identification of bacterial isolates

TABLE 4

Biochemical test carried out for the identification of bacterial isolates

TABLE 5

Age distribution and number of isolated organisms from both sexes of population sampled

TABLE 6

Age distribution number and percentage occurrence of staphylococcus auraus Escherichia coli Klebsiella and pseudomonas

TABLE 7

Age distribution number sampled, total percentage of s auraus and e coli and percentage of other organisms.

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE 1

Plate count according to sex and age of population sampled

TABLE 2

Number of groups of bacterial organisms isolated according to ex and age of population sampled.

TABLE 3

Preliminary identification of bacterial isolates

TABLE 4

Biochemical test carried out for the identification of bacterial  ISOLATES

TABLE 5

Age distribution and number of isolated  organisms from both sexes of population sampled.

TABLE 6

Age distribution number and percentage occurrence of staphylococcus auraus Escherichia coli, Klebsiella and pseudomonas

TABLE 7

Age distribution Number sampled, total percentage of S auraus and E coli and total percentage of other organisms.

TABLE 8

Sensitivity disc testing of staphylococcus aureus and  Escheriche coli using orange extract.

TABLE 9

Age range, number sampled and the average zones of inhitction of s aureus and  coli on orange extract..

Table 10

Antibiotics sensitive disc testing on staphylococcus auraus and Escherichia coli.

          CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Sweet orange is a strum belonging to the plant family ruracea with a botanical name citrus simrnsia. They are berries but because or their unusual structure, they are called fresperidiums. Sweet oranges originates in southern China thousands of yeast’s ago. Now they are most popular and wide spread of the citrus fruits. Citrus saneness (sweet oranges) can be grown is most parts of the tropics where than five months and where there is fairly even distribution of  rainfall  throughout the year. The  trees can be grown from seed but its more usual to buy  budded citrus sincensis from private nursery men or form official Agricultural sources. Citrus saneness  is a spreading  ever  green, some time spiny trees up to  12m  fall with ovale elliptic leaves which are commonly 7-10cm long dark green and routed at the base. They are carried on short articulated petioles with very narrow wins. The leaves are strongly scented the white sweet smelling flowers are  smaller than those of the group. The rounded fruits are up to 12cm in diameter. Deep yellow to orange or in humict climate remaining green when ripe. Sweet oranges (citrus saneness) are trotrical crops. They are also annual crops (Cobley 1976)

In a typical sweet orange, the excerpt and mesa carp are leathery and protect the juicy inner tissue deceived from the endocarp from damage and desiccation. The epidermis of the fruit has a thick cuticle and varying number of stomata, the excerpt or flavedo is a layer of irregular photosynthctically active parenchyma cells which is green in young fruit and becoming orange or greenish when they nature. The mesocarp is thicker than the exocarp and consists of inter cellular space. The mesocarp is know as the albedo. It is rich in vitamin C sugar cellulose and in pectin. The mesocarp and excarp together form the bird  of the fruit. The center of the fruit is occupied by the development  carpels of the ovary which are disposed around the pithy axis in form of several closely packed segments. Each segment develops from a single carpal and is surrounded by thin, transparent endocarp or “ray” form which multi-cellular hairs grow to fill each segment. Each huge cell or pulp vesicle of these hairs fills with juice and they form the edible part of the fruit for which the crops are grown. The  seed lies on axle placenta close to the central axis and in the nature fruit is about 40- 45 percent juice 30 percent rind and 30 percent pulp and seeds which taken together consists of about  90 percent water 5-10 percent sugar 1-2  percent petunias various acids, essential oil proteins and minerals.

Generally the fruit contains 80-90 percent of sugar and acids with relative proportion  varying between other species of citrus. Citric acid  is the abundant acid in the sap. Pectin in the juice gives it a  cloudy colloidal  appearance. Cilrus nsinensis contain mineral salts,  glycosides, small amount of protein and vitamin (cobley 1976) it is a good source of cirus are citrus paradisc (grape fruit) citrus limon (lemon) citrus  aurantatifolia (lime) citrus aurantinum (sour orange) citrus reticulate  (tangermie and maudanine) citrus grandis (pummelo) and citrus medical (citron) The sugar and acids vary between species.

The medical potency of sweet orange (citrus smeasin) is due to its high content in vitamin  C which is believed to stimulated the production of white blood cells, primarily neutrophib, which attack foreign antigens such as bacteria and viruses.  It also boost the body’s production of antibodies and interferon, the protein that helps protect us from viral invaders and cancer cells. (Uddoh, 1998).  The importance of vitamin C from citrus fruits in prevention of scurvy was scientifically proven in 1756 by John Lind (Rudolph et al 1978)

            The skin is normally an effective barrier to pathogens, but skin may be broken example by wounding, surgery or the “bites” of insects etc.  Wounds may admit any of the variety of potential pathogens capable of causing systemic disease (disease affecting the entire body) or localized disease.  Bacterial pathogens can enter via “bites” (singleton 1995).  Marmoin et al (1973) state that there are many organisms associated with wound  infections, which are, propionibacterium, Klebsiella, staphylococcus, Escherichia coli etc. superficial infection are skin pustutes, boils, carbunictes, impetize, penphigus, neonatorum, sycosis barbae, paronychia styles, blepheritis and conjunctivitis” infections of accidental and surgical wounds.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Most wound infections are infected by staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and other micro organisms (Bhata et al 1998) vitamin C is said to play important role in protection agaisnt bacterial and viral infection (Okaka et al 2002).  The uptake of orange juice which is rich in vitamin C stimulates the production of white blood cells premarily neutrophils which fight agiasnt bacteria and virus and speeds the healing of wound (Rudolph et al 1978).

            It is therefore necessary to carryoput a research work to determine the antibacteria activity of sweet orange on S. aureus and E. coli involved in wound infections

AIMS AND OBJECTIVE

1.                  To determine the antibacterial effect of orange juice (citurs sinensis) on staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli isolated from wound infection.

2.                  To determine the antimicrotial sensistivity pattern of isolated involved

HYPOTEHSES

HO      -           Orange (citrus sinensis) has antibacterial effect on S. aureus and E. Coli isolated from wound infection.

Hi        -           Orange (citrus sinensis) has no anti bacterial effect on S. aureues and E.Coli isolated from wound infection.

HII      -           Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are associated with wound infections

SIGNIFICANCE OF HTESTUDY

The result of this study will determine the antibacteiral activity of citrus sinensis to S. aureus and E.Coli involved in wound infection.  And if the results are favourable then consumption of sweet orange will be advocated, which is safer than consumption of medical drugs which often have side effect to the individuals taking them, As a preventive therapy (since it raises the immune system of the individuals involves).  It is naturally safer to the sweet orange, which is a good item.


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