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PROJECT TOPIC: A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ON EFFECT OF WEEDS CONTROL ON MAIZE YIELD

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

        This project work is based on the analysis of an experiment where this effect of weed control method tested on the gain yield of maize. The experiment was carried out by the Kwara State agricultural development project (KWADP) Ilorin, during three consecutive years starting form 2008 to 2010.

1.1      HISTORY OF MAIZE

Maize belong to a family of grass called cereals with botanical name ZEAMAYS.

Maize is an animal plant of about 4.6 highlights inflorescence terminates the axis and product both male and female flowers. It originated in a wild state in the lowlands of tropical Southern American continent, probably in Mexico. Maize was grown from grain with success at Woburn between 1949 and 1956 (Man 1977).

Maize proceeded North ward and played a prominent port in the civilization of the ay as an azlects, it has new spread all over the world following the early close movement by explores and traders it has distributed along the West African early in the sixteenth century by Portuguese. It has become a dominant food crop in many sub humid area of African of which Nigeria is one.

Maize is the largest of the cereal, all over the annual grass attaining a height, with a jointed stem which is solid and contains a considerable amount of sugar when young. The leaves are large and narrow with way margins.

 The temperature of both the soil and are important, especially during the growing season form May to September the main (average) summer temperature of 75of is the best more favorable.

CLASSIFICATION OF MAIZE

The classification of maize is based on the anatomy of the leaf, physiological nature of he plant green colour and sizes. Also maize could be divided according to the structure of the grain, which depends upon the genetic characters.

We may have biotical classification as follows: kingdom of plant, division of angiosperm, family of GERMINE, class of MAYDEA genes of ZEAMAYS and species of LINN.

Some variety of maize has high power of combating disease while some may not. Other may be granted based on the amount of protein, vitamin and carbohydrates contents e.g. popcorn, hint maize, dent maize, sweet maize and flour or set maize.

1.2      MAIZE PRODUCTION, CULTIVATION AND PLANTING

It is same at the beginning of rainy season, seeds are treated with fungicide, and maize requires soils that have well cultivated with amount of rainfall. The choice of pant in ridges or on the flat land depends on soil conditions. Mostly, planted on ridges with three seed in hole that is 2.5cm to 3.8cm deep. Rain forest zone is a better maize preaching area in the country due to more favourable rainfall and higher solar radiation.

Planting is done in mid March to early April for the early maize while late maize is planed by August to mid September and planted in holes of 30cm to 50cm along the raw and 60cm to 90cm space between the raw.

FERTILIZER APPLICATION

        Maize gown best on rich well-drained natural or alkaline soil become maize use large quantities be increased by he application on nitrogenous and phosphate fertilizer.

        Weeding is an important factor in he reduction of leaf disease and offer completion early in the growth of the crop. Weed offer a great competition to maize especially in the first two weeks of growth, and most controlled for optimum performance. The methods of weed control can be divided into:

1.          Cultural method: Good farming practices contribution significantly to the control of weeds on farm lands weed-free seeds should be planted at all times.



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