This study was carried out to assess the protestant reformation in relation to contemporary Christianity in Nigeria. The Protestant Reformation is one of the defining events of the last millennium. Nearly 500 years after the Reformation, its causes and consequences have seen a renewed interest in the social sciences. Research in economics, sociology, and political science increasingly uses detailed individual-level, city-level, and regional-level data to identify drivers of the adoption of the Reformation, its diffusion pattern, and its socio-economic consequences. This study takes stock of the research so far, tries to point out what we know and what we do not know, and which are the most promising areas for future research.