1.0 INTRODUCTION The analysis of soaps has become necessary by the desire to rationalize test procedures and thereby adequately provide, for the requirement contained in soap to make it work effectively. Soaps are the sodium or potassium salt of long chain, fatty acids and are produced by saponification of fats and oils with alkalis e.g. potassium hydroxide. Lux soap, which is used for bathing and laundry, for it to be satisfactory for consumpti0on, shall be free from objectionable odour both as received and in water solution; it should not contain/have any active chlorine or oxygen. It should not have any active that shall not contain any visible foreign matter posses good. Lathering and cleansing properties and should have no injurious effect on the skin. Also it should contain low water content, no impurities, and very small excess alkali. It is made by the action of a hot caustic solution on tallow or fatty oils, with the simultaneous formation of glycerol, which at one time, was wasted or left in the soap, as it is still certain, glycerol is a valuable by product. The reaction is as follows: 3NaOH + (C17 H35 COO)3 C3H5 3 C17 H35 COONa + Caustic Triglyceride sodium stearate Alkali (soap) C3H5(oH)3 Glycerol Soap can also be made by the action of caustic soda or fatty acid without producing glycerol. The reaction is as follows:
NaOH + (C17H35 COO)3C3H5 3C17H35COONa + H2O Caustic Soda Stearic acid Soap Water
The NAFDAC STANDARD FOR QUALITY SOAP IS – 02 – 1526.
1.1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES The aims of this study are: (i) To determine the moisture content of Lux (ii) To determine the free caustic alkali (iii) To know the quality and its durability
It is hoped that the results obtained in the analysis and its interpretation in terms of quality may culminate in suggestion that could lead to an enhancement of those characteristics of the soap.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1. The soap (Lux) analysed shrink and become soft when it contains high moisture content. 2. The soap with high caustic alkali causes rashes and irritation irritating the skin. 3. When glycerol, which is the valuable by product of soap separate, it will constitute a problem.
1.3 HYPOTHESIS Ho : Lux Soap sold in Nigeria markets have the NaOH content required of good soap. H1 : Lux Soap sold in Nigerian markets do not have the NaOH content required of good soap.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The product analysed will be used for washing and general removal of dirties. It will also enhance removal of germs and also reduce the surface tension. It will also serve to remove colour and greasy surfaces.
1.5 LIMITATIONS In hard water, it is an ineffective cleaner. Hard water contains salt of Magnesium, calcium and iron in solution. When soap is used in hard water, calcium soap the insoluble calcium salt of the fatty acid and other precipitate are deposited as curds