1.1 RENEWABLE ENERGY
Renewable energy is energy that comes from resources which are continually replenished such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves and geothermal heat. About 16% of global final energy consumption comes from renewable resources with 10% of all energy from traditional biomass, mainly used for heating and 3.4% from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewable [REN21,2011]
Wind power is growing at the rate of 30% annually with a worldwide installed capacity of 282,482 mega watts (MW) at the end of 2012 and is widely used in Europe, Asia, and the United State. At the end of 2012, the photovoltaic (PV) capacity worldwide was 100,000MW and PV power stations are popular in Germany and Italy. Solar power stations are popular in Spain, and the Mojave Desert. The world’s largest geothermal power installed is the Geysers in California, with a rated capacity of 750MW. Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs in the world, involving production of ethanol fuel from sugar cane, and ethanol now provides 18% of the country’s automotive fuel. Ethanol fuel is also widely available in the USA [WAE, 2001]  while many renewable energy projects are large scale, renewable technologies are also suited to rural and remote areas, where energy is often crucial in human development. [Ben,2011].
As of 2011, small solar PV systems provide electricity to a few million households, and micro-hydro configured into minigrids serves many more over 44million households use biogas made in household scale digesters for lighting and or cooking and other than 166million households rely on a new generation of more efficient biomass cookstores. [a] [Schroeder & smith, 2008]. United nations secretary, general Banki Moon has said that renewable energy has the ability to lift the poorest nations to new level of prosperity.] [Carrington, 2003].
Climate change and global warming concerns, coupled with high oil price, peak and increasing government support, are during increasing renewable energy legislation, incentives and commercialization. New government spending regulation and policies helped the industry weather the global financial crisis better than many other sectors. According to a 2011 projection by the international energy agency, solar power generators may produce most of the world’s electricity within 50 years, dramatically reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases that harm the environment. [IEA,2012].
Renewable energy is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly. In its various form, it derives directly from the sun or from heat generated deep within the earth. Includes in the definition is electricity and heat generated from solar, wind, ocean, hydropower, biomass, geothermal resources and biofuels and hydrogen derived from renewable resources.
Renewable energy resources and significant opportunities for energy efficiency exist over wide geographical areas, in contrast to other energy sources, which are concentrated in a limited number efficiency and technological diversification of energy sources would result in significant energy replaces conversional fuel in four distinct and four security & economic benefits [Kris,2013]