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PROJECT TOPIC: INVESTIGATION OF ARTHROPOD PREDATORS AND INSECT PEST CONTROL

Project Body:


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Arthropod species occur from below the soil surface to the tree canopy. However, only a small fraction is observed on a frequent basis because many are microscopic or hidden below ground or plant tissue.  Very few species are classified as pest. Whether they feed on plants or plant produce invade our homes, inflict painful bites or stings. Infect most insects and other arthropods are beneficial and serve a variety of important functions in the garden. The abundance of beneficial insects especially predators is often limited in urban landscapes because these environments typically are characterized by disturbance.

Disturbance factors include use of pesticides and other chemicals, air pollution and wind-borne dust, all of which may increase mortality of beneficial arthropods. Residential landscapes often lack adequate amounts of essential resources such as food, nesting sites and shelter than enhance reproduction and survival of natural enemies. Some common strategies are employed to conserve them in residential landscapes and these strategies may help reduce insecticide use and improve plant health by enhancing natural control of arthropod pests.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Because many arthropod pests are exotic the aim of classical biological control is to reduce pest numbers by reuniting old enemies through importation of predators from the area of insect pest origin. Lady beetles, green lace wings and spiders are familiar examples of predator arthropods inhibiting residential landscapes and gardens. In general, predators are larger than their prey, consume many prey items during their life time and feed on a broad range of species immature and/or adults may be predatory and often do not leave behind any evidence of attack. However, these arthropod predators often help to keep aphids, spider mites, caterpillars and other insect pests under control.

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The objective of this study is to evaluate arthropod predators and insect pest control.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to know more on this study and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their research work. This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide for other study.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Arthropod: An arthropod is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton, a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages. Arthropods form the phylum Euarthropoda, which includes insects, arachnids, myriapods, and crustaceans.

Arthropod Predators: These include centipedes, spiders, ground-beetles, scorpions, skunk-spiders, pseudoscorpions, ants, and some mites. Many predators eat crop pests, and some, such as beetles and parasitic wasps, have been developed for use as commercial biocontrols.

Pesticide: Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests. The term pesticide includes all of the following: herbicide, insecticides (which may include insect growth regulators, termiticides, etc.)


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