A study was carried out in the Rubber growing soils of Utagba-ogbe in Ndokwa-West Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria. The aim was to characterize the soil in respect of their morphological, physical and chemical properties. Six mapping units were mapped out, and 4 profile pits dug in each of them in order to characterize the soils. Soil samples were also collected from the soil profile horizons and analyzed for their particle size distribution and chemical properties. The chemical properties evaluated were the soil pH, organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, exchangeable bases, exchange acidity and cation exchange capacity. The morphological properties were also examined and described. These include soil colour, mottle, texture, structure, consistence and horizon boundary. Results of the study showed that the soils irrespective of pedons were deep, non-mottled with varied textures. The structure ranged angular blocky, to sub–angular blocky. The consistence ranged from friable, slight plastic to very plastic in the subsoil horizons. The boundary descriptions were clear, smooth, diffuse, and wavy boundary. The physical characteristics showed that the soils were sandy loam at the surface to sandy clay loam and clay loam in the sub-soil horizons. The soils were generally acidic 5.5 – 6.5, high in organic matter content, total nitrogen, but low to moderate in phosphorus, basic cations, CEC and base saturation. The results showed that the rubber growing soils were moderate in fertility. In order to sustain rubber production for a long time, regular fertilization and liming should be carried out to maintain rubber production in the soil.
TABLE OF CONTENTCover page iCertification iiDedication iiiAcknowledgment ivTable of Content vAbstract vi
CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.1 Background of the study 11.2 The objective of the study 3
CHAPTER TWOLITERATURE REVIEW2.1 Origins and Distributions of Rubber 42.2 Varieties of Rubber 42.3 Uses of Rubber 52.4 Climatic Requirement 52.5 Soil Requirements 62.6 Agronomic Practices 72.7 Propagation Methods 82.8 Maintenances of Rubber 92.8.1 Weeding 92.8.2 Establishment and maintenances of Ground Cover 92.8.3 Watering/irrigation 102.8.4 Harvesting and Processing of Rubber 102.8.5 Rubber Tapping System 112.8.6 Processing of Rubber 122.8.7 Pests and Diseases of Rubber 12
CHAPTER THREE MATERIALS AND METHODS3.1 Description of the Study Area 143.2 Field Study/Sample Collections 153.3 Laboratory Methods 163.4 Analytical Procedures 173.4.1 Particles size distribution 173.4.2 Soil pH (Electrometric Method) 193.4.3 Soil Organic Matter (Walkley Black Wet Oxidation Method) 193.4.4 Total Nitrogen (Kjeldahl Procedure) 203.4.5 Available Phosphorus 213.4.6 Exchangeable Bases 213.4.7 Exchange Acidity 223.4.8 Cation Exchange Capacity 223.4.9 Percentage Base Saturation 22CHAPTER FOURRESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS4.1 Morphological Properties 234.2 Particles Size Distribution 244.3 Chemical Properties 30
CHAPTER FIVESUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION5.1 Summary 405.2 Conclusion 415.3 Recommendation 41References 42
The Objective of the StudyThe objective of the study include: