Project Body:


A study was carried out in the Rubber growing soils of Utagba-ogbe in Ndokwa-West Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria. The aim was to characterize the soil in respect of their morphological, physical and chemical properties. Six mapping units were mapped out, and 4 profile pits dug in each of them in order to characterize the soils. Soil samples were also collected from the soil profile horizons and analyzed for their particle size distribution and chemical properties. The chemical properties evaluated were the soil pH, organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, exchangeable bases, exchange acidity and cation exchange capacity. The morphological properties were also examined and described. These include soil colour, mottle, texture, structure, consistence and horizon boundary. Results of the study showed that the soils irrespective of pedons were deep, non-mottled with varied textures. The structure ranged angular blocky, to sub–angular blocky. The consistence ranged from friable, slight plastic to very plastic in the subsoil horizons. The boundary descriptions were clear, smooth, diffuse, and wavy boundary. The physical characteristics showed that the soils were sandy loam at the surface to sandy clay loam and clay loam in the sub-soil horizons. The soils were generally acidic 5.5 – 6.5, high in organic matter content, total nitrogen, but low to moderate in phosphorus, basic cations, CEC and base saturation. The results showed that the rubber growing soils were moderate in fertility. In order to sustain rubber production for a long time, regular fertilization and liming should be carried out to maintain rubber production in the soil.

TABLE OF CONTENTCover page                                                                              iCertification                                                                              iiDedication                                                                               iiiAcknowledgment                                                                     ivTable of Content                                                                     vAbstract                                                                                  vi

CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.1     Background of the study                                                11.2     The objective of the study                                              3

CHAPTER TWOLITERATURE REVIEW2.1     Origins and Distributions        of Rubber                        42.2     Varieties of Rubber                                                        42.3     Uses of Rubber                                                              52.4     Climatic Requirement                                                    52.5     Soil Requirements                                                          62.6     Agronomic Practices                                                     72.7     Propagation Methods                                                    82.8     Maintenances of Rubber                                                 92.8.1  Weeding                                                                         92.8.2 Establishment and maintenances of Ground Cover          92.8.3  Watering/irrigation                                                        102.8.4  Harvesting and Processing of Rubber                               102.8.5  Rubber Tapping System                                                  112.8.6  Processing of Rubber                                                     122.8.7  Pests and Diseases of Rubber                                        12

CHAPTER THREE MATERIALS AND METHODS3.1     Description of the Study Area                                       143.2     Field Study/Sample Collections                                      153.3     Laboratory Methods                                                      163.4     Analytical Procedures                                                    173.4.1  Particles size distribution                                                173.4.2  Soil pH (Electrometric Method)                                        193.4.3   Soil Organic Matter (Walkley Black Wet Oxidation Method) 193.4.4  Total Nitrogen (Kjeldahl Procedure)                              203.4.5  Available Phosphorus                                                   213.4.6  Exchangeable Bases                                                    213.4.7  Exchange Acidity                                                           223.4.8  Cation Exchange Capacity                                            223.4.9  Percentage Base Saturation                                        22CHAPTER FOURRESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS4.1     Morphological Properties                                              234.2     Particles Size Distribution                                             244.3     Chemical Properties                                                     30

CHAPTER FIVESUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION5.1     Summary                                                                       405.2     Conclusion                                                                     415.3     Recommendation                                                           41References                                                                       42






The Objective of the StudyThe objective of the study include:

  • The characterize the soil in relation to their morphological, physical and chemical properties.

Useful Links: