This study developed a training package for enhancing the effectiveness of CommunityBased Organizations (CBOs) in Anambra State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study sought to determine specific objectives of training package, determine content of training package determine delivery system to be used in teaching training package, determine the evaluation activities to be adopted for assessing the achievement of the objective of training package: develop a draft training package based on the findings from specific purpose 1-4, validate the draft training package developed and revise the draft training package based on feedback from the evaluation. Four research questions and four hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance guided the study. The study adopted the research and development (R and D) design. The study was carried out in five phases as follows: phase i: determination of the important leadership skills, knowledge and attitude needed by community based organization leaders. Phase ii: determination of the component of training package to be developed. Phase iii: development of the draft training package. Phase iv: validation of draft training package, Phase v: revision of the draft training package. The study was conducted in Anambra State Nigeria. The population was made up of 1,701 (Executive members of the 189 registered CBOs. 504 respondents were sample from the total population using proportionate stratified random sampling technique. Two instruments were developed and used to collect data for the study, namely: the Training Package for Enhancing Leaders Questionnaire (TPELQ) and open ended interview (OEI). The TPELQ was face validated by three experts from the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Cronback alpha reliability coefficient index was used to determine the internal consistency of the instrument and it yielded an overall coefficient of .94. The draft training package developed was validated by two experts namely: One Curriculum expert and one Adult education expert. Mean, Standard deviation and t-test Statistics were used to analyze the data collected, and test the hypotheses. The findings included: 34 Objectives of training package, 33 content of training package, 30 delivery systems and 19 evaluation activities for assessing the achievement of the objectives of training package. There were significant differences in the mean rating responses of trained and untrained CBO leaders on ten objectives of training package. There was however no significant difference in the mean rating responses of trained and untrained CBO leaders on 24 out of the 34 objectives, 27 out of 33 content, 25 out of 30 delivery system, and 15 out 19 evaluation activities of the training package. Based on the findings it was recommended among others that 1. Policy makers and community development officers should utilize the training package developed in this study to review the current leadership training content. 2. Government should provide fund to assist the CBO leaders in the development of their communities. 3. CBO leaders should update their knowledge and skills by going for training regularly.
Background of the Study
Leadership problem has been one of the most prevalent issues in Nigerian society. In every organization, leadership styles and performance are seen as fundamental to the survival of the organization. The success of any organization depends heavily on effective leadership. This raised the need of inculcating values in the mind of the leaders, especially in community-based organizations (CBOs). Leadership is a factor of great significance in human development. It is an indispensible element in creating and promoting desired change (Anyanwu, 1992). Effective leadership in CBOs brings rapid positive change. The success or failure of every community- based organization venture depends on the threshold of leadership than anything else. This spells the reason for the importance attached to the subject of leadership especially as primary motivator that galvanizes, organizes, directs and coordinates all other resources to achieve group objectives (Akintayo & Oghenekohwo 2004). Babara (2007) viewed leadership as the factor of inspiring and empowering others to voluntarily commit themselves towards achieving the leaders’ vision. The researcher viewed leadership as an influence relationship between leaders and followers towards achievement of goals in a given situation. It is the intellectual ability to coordinate, direct and work for what is best for community-based organization.
Leadership determines whether or not human-beings could enjoy progress and prosperity. Many of the worst and current woes of man are attributed to irresponsible leadership which accounts for the failure of many community-based organizations. In other words, financial mismanagement, non-accountability, dictatorship, dishonesty, conflict, poverty, inability to attract programmes that can help develop communities, power tussle, limited funds, inability to prioritize the needs of the community, inability to mobilize