1.1 Background of the Study
The role of organizational culture in employee performance is a topic that has received extensive coverage in the literature, although, from different viewpoints and with different findings as to its relevance Alvesson (2002) summaries four views on the relationship between organizational culture and performance. The strong-culture thesis, where a strong culture leads to high performance, the exact opposite, where performance leads to creation of “strong” culture; the contingency approach, where certain cultures are appropriate and necessary and finally the “adaptive culture” which are the key to better performance through its ability to respond to environmental changes quickly.
Denison (2004) stated that there is little evidence on the impact of an organization’s culture on it employee’s performance. He found that organizations with participative cultures were performing better than those cultures that were not. This is in line with Burt, Gabbay, Holt and Moran (2004), who hold that a feature of culture is important for an organization’s performance to the extent to which the employee buy into it other scholars build on the foundation through empirical research on organizational cultural and employee’s performance (Gordon and DI Tomaso, 2002; Kotter and Heskett 2002, Marcouldes Soresnsen 2002 and Heck 2003). Some degree of correlation has also been found by Burt, Gabbay, Holt and Moran (2004), as well as by Ogbonna and Harris (2000) to mention a few. Rashed and S. Rashed (2003) found from studying organizational culture literature that there is a clear link between culture and employee’s performance. However, Lewis (2004) concludes her study of a tertiary institution in Australia by stating that behaviour is the only thing that directly affect an organization’s performance. She further posits that “while behaviour may be one embodiment of culture, culture is certainly not the only determinant of behavior”. From this range of literature, it appears as the role of organizational culture in performance has received increasingly more interest and acceptance over the years. Although such relationship is difficult to prove, some of the above mentioned scholars have found different degrees of correlations. This research therefore aims to contribute to this discourse by studying the effect of organizational culture on employee performance, using selected schools in Ikot Abasi Local Government Area.