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1.1  Background of the Study

Education provides children with the knowledge and skills necessary to advance themselves and their nation economically. To this effect, there are some socio-economic factors and political factors that often affect the level of performance of children who undergo the educational system more especially in Nigeria setting.

However, social is a concept that relate to human society and its mode of organization or rank and status in society or interacting with other people and living communities. In other words, social is the cultural behaviour of any given society in which they belong. Moreover, socio-economic factors such as family income level, parents’ level of education, all influence 1 the equality and availability of education as well as the ability of education to improve children life. In connection to aforementioned facts, Remi (1993) observed that at the family level, a parent send their children to school according to their level of influence or property. Hence, in Nigeria, wealthy parents send their children to private schools while poor parents send their children to schools while poor parents send their children to schools which may provide less effective learning facilities. Similarly, a clear illustration of Reni’s the fact can be seen from the fact that in most Nigerian societies, especially in Gusau metropolis, there are some primary and secondary schools that are meant for only children of a particular class. In other words, there are schools that can only be afforded by the children of the rich and there are schools children of the poor cannot afford. Similarly, Orhungar (1990) asserts that the cultural background of the 2 families is determined to a large extent by their socio-economic background, as the child grows up, moves out to the interest of wider society, his interaction with it and perception of it are largely determined from his/her earlier experiences at home. The setting and socializing influence molds the personality of the child.

On the other hand, Anahalu (1982), despite the fact that educational provision have been political since the beginning of the regional government in 1955, the western region state, the Universal Primary Education in 1976 which was launched by the Federal Ministry of Education under General Olusegun Obasanjo. This was also followed up to the formation fact in terms of developing national educational system started in 1969 by the informal curriculum conference which led to the publication by the informal curriculum conference in 1977, thereby revision was made in 1981. The policy stipulated aqa 3 uniform periods of six years of primary education, three years of junior secondary school and three years of senior secondary school and four years of university education.

In addition to that, the new system was introduced by Obasanjo Administration in the country. It was reformed under the democracy era which was known as the 9-3-4 system whereby nine years is expected to be spent by children in primary school, three years in secondary school, and four years in the university. Equally important, the civilian government of Jonathan has of recent (during the early of 2012) introduced Almajiri Educational System and was launched in 2012 in Dange-Shuni Local Government Area of Sokoto State. All these are political factors that affect children's performance in learning process on which often determines the level of performance of children. Therefore, the concern of this work is to look at such factors and analyze them with 4 special overview in some selected secondary schools in the Gusau metropolis.

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