Eduproject.com.ng logo - APPROVED EDUCATION PROJECT TOPICS AND RESEARCH MATERIALS

PROJECT TOPIC: Domestic Architecture in Benin City (A Study of Continuity and Change)

Project Body:


Abstract  The culture of people determines and shapes the domestic space in their domestic architecture. Subsequent modifications of the  idea have focused on more precise  revelations of how the spatial  arrangements of material culture are culturally patterned.  Through a topological analysis of house plans and patterns, collected from the City of Benin, this study detects a  transformation  in the house-type  aspired and developed by people  during the last five centuries.  A group of 1054 houses, located  in four residential zones  in Benin City, Nigeria, has been analysed by means of  frequency distribution,  Space Syntax categories  and factor analysis. The research is determined  to find out how the use, organization and meaning of space in Benin have changed and whether or not there are continuities over the years across the entire City.   The Space Syntax approach is used to measure the varying degree of change at each stage of the evolution. Here, the „space-activityâ interaction is the main idea that enables us to see what underlies the process. As the old  spaces  take different names and functions in the new  design, they bring about the recombination of their activities, and when this occurs repeatedly at each stage, it leaves behind „topological pathsâ from which the direction of the evolution can be measured.  Further examinations reveal that the  space-activity interaction arises both at each partitioned  space and at the collective  space that is closely  related. The analysis of the attitudes and responses of the residents using factor analysis revealed that both socio-economic and socio-cultural factors are responsible for the change and continuity in the domestic space.

 TABLE OF CONTENTSTitle Page ----------.------------------------------------------------------. Declaration----------------------------------------------------------------.i Certification--------------------------------------------------------------...ii Dedication----------------------------------------------------------------.iii Acknowledgements--------------------------------------------------------.iv  Table of Content----------------------------------------vi  List of Tables ----------------...------------------------------------------...xi List of Figures --------------------.------------------------------------.....xiv List of Plates----------------...----------------------------------------....xviii Abstract--------------------------------..--------------------------------.xix  CHAPTER 1           INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background to the Study----------------------------------------------....1 1.2 Statement of the Problem ------------------------------------------------..6 1.3 Research Questions------------------------------------..7 1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Study--------------------------------------------.7 1.5 Scope of the Study ------------------------------------------------------.8  1.6 The Context of the Study ------------------------------------------------....9 1.6.1 The History and People of Benin City--------------------------9 1.6.2 Historical Background--------------------------------.....12 1.6.3 Benin and its Surrounding Villages--------------------------..18 1.6.4 Residential Zones in Benin City----------------------------.20   CHAPTER 2           LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction------------------------------------------------------------24 2.2 Domestic Architecture and Culture----------------------------------------..24 2.3 Social and Cultural Change----------------------------------------------..32 2.4 Urbanization and Urban Change ------------------------------------------.46 2.5 Summary----------------------------------------....56  CHAPTER 3              THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 3.1 Introduction----------------------------------------58 3.2 Concept of Culture----------------------------------------------------...58 3.3 House Form and Culture------------------..----------------------------....60 3.4 Traditional versus Modern Houses--.----------------------------.--------....63 3.5 Classification of House-types --------------------------------------.....66  3.6 Organization, Use and Meaning of Space----------------------------------...68 3.7 Household------------------------------------------------------...72 3.8 Summary----------------------------------------...75  CHAPTER 4               RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 4.1 Introduction------------------------------------------------------------77 4.2 The Research Design--------------------------------------------------....78   4.3 Study Population--------------------------------------------------------79  4.4 Sampling Method/Procedure--------------------------------------..80 4.5 Sample Size----------------------------------------------------------. 80 4.6 Data Collection------------------------------------------------------.....83 TABLE OF CONTENTS 4.6.1 Design of Questionnaire ----------------------------------------------...84 4.6.2 Design of Interview Schedule ----------------------------------..85 4.6.3 Data Collection and Presentation----------------------------------------..86  CHAPTER 5              SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESIDENTS IN BENIN 5.1 Introduction----------------------------------------------------------..88 5.2 Socio-Economic Characteristics of the Residents----------------------------...89 5.2.1 Household Income--------------------------------------------------....90 5.2.2 Occupational Structure--------------------------------------------------92 5.2.3 Age and Sex ------------------------------------------------------...93 5.2.4 Marital Status and Household Size--------------------------------------...94 5.2.5 Ethnic Composition--------------------------------------------------...95 5.2.6 Educational Background of Respondents--------------------------------.....96 5.2.7 Tenure status of respondents------------------------------.97 5.3 Socio-Cultural Characteristics of Residents----------------------------------...98 5.3.1 Religion------------------------------------------------------------...99 5.3.2 Number of household ----------------------------------------------.....99 5.4 Summary----------------------------------------..100  CHAPTER 6           HOUSES IN BENIN: TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS 6.1 Introduction----------------------------------------------------------..102 6.2 Classification of the Houses and their Characteristics------------------------.....103 6.3 Classification of the Houses --------------------------------------------103 6.3.1 Core Residential Zone------------------------------------------------.107 vii 6.3.2 Intermediate Residential Zone----------------------------------------.....120 6.3.3 Sub-urban Residential Zone------------------------------------------....133  6.3.4 Planned Estate Residential Zone----------------------------------------.141 6.4 Characteristics of the Houses------------------------------------------.....150 6.4.1 Tenure Composition------------------------------------------------....150 6.4.2. Number of Household in the House--------------------------------------152 6.4.3. Length of Years of Stay in the House----------------------------------...153 6.4.4. Age of the House----------------------------------------------------.154 6.4.5. Owner----------------------------------------..156  6.5 Synthesis--------..----------------------------------------------158  CHAPTER 7      ORGANIZATION, USE AND MEANING OF SPACES IN BENIN HOUSES 7.1 Introduction--------------------------------------------------------..160 7.2 Approaches to the Study of Organization, Use and Meaning of Domestic Space----...161 7.3 The Architectural Approach--------------------------------------------...161 7.3.1 Organization and Use of Domestic Space----------------------------------.162 7.3.2 Meaning of Domestic Space------------------------------------------....162 7.3.3 Socio-Spatial Analysis of Domestic Spaces in Benin----------------------.....164 7.3.4 Socio-Spatial Analysis of the House-types across the Residential Zones----------.165 7.3.5 Houses types--------------------------------------------------------166 7.4 Analysis and Interpretation of Organization, Use and Meaning of Domestic   Space in Benin------------------------------------------------------.166 7.4.1 Cooking and Eating Spaces------------------------------------------.....167 7.4.2 Storage Space for Household Goods------------------------------------180 viii 7.4.3 Sleeping Arrangement----------------------------------------------.....188 7.4.4 Space for Personal Hygiene------------------------------------------....196 7.4.5 Outdoor Spaces (Communal, Private and Public), Receiving Guest ----------.....209 7.4.6 Space for Worship and Socializing, Ceremonies and Festival----------------..222 7.4.7 Summary and Interpretation------------------------------------------....236 7.5 Data on Attitudes and Response of Respondents ----------------------------..237 7.5.1 Summary----------------------------------------------------------...244  7.6 Synthesis----------------------------------------..245  CHAPTER 8           SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 8.1 Introduction--------------------------------------------------------...246 8.2 Summaries of Findings ----------------------------------------------.....247 8.3 Synthesis ----------------------------------------------------------...249 8.4 Syntheses of Continuity and Change--------------------------.251 8.5 Implications of Findings ----------------------------------------------...251 8.6 Emerging Issues--------------------------------------------------.252 8.6.1 Public and Private Spaces--------------------------------------------...252 8.6.2 Privacy------------------------------------------------------------...253 8.6.3 Training for Local Builders--------------------------------------------...253 8.6.4 Security----------------------------------------------------------....253 8.6.5 Building for Culture and Climate----------------------------------------254 8.7 Conclusions--------------------------------------------------------....254  BIBLIOGRAPHY----------------------------------------------------.....256  APPENDIX----------------------------------------------------------....277  ix  List of Plates  Plate 1.1:   Engraving Showing Warriors with Spears and Shields, Drummers                    and Dancers, during a Ceremony in the Oba Palace--------------------....13                         Plate 1.2: Pre-Colonial Drawing of Benin City, Before The British Occupation--------....15                         Plate 6.1: Private Courtyard (Harem for Women and Children) - Ikun N’oderie--------....108 Plate 6.2: Private Courtyard- (Harem for Women and Children) - Ikun N’oderie--------109 Plate 6.3: Public Courtyard (Entrance Courtyard) - (Ikun N’odore)--------------------109 Plate 6.4: Outer Courtyard for Shrines and 1dols - (Ikun N’arhuera)------------------.111 Plate 6.5: Shows That Externally the Mud Walls are Finished in a                 Pattern of Horizontal Ribs------------------------------------------.112                Double Floor House----------------------------------------------..192  List of Figures  Fig 1.1: Map of the Kingdom of Benin In the nineteenth century--------------------..10                          Fig 1.2: Present Day Nigeria, Showing the Position of Benin City--------------------.11 Fig 1.3: Reconstructed Kingdom Benin Flag, now in the British National Maritime Museum.--------------------------------------------...12                         Fig1.4: Map of Benin and Its Surrounding  Villages------------------------------...19 Fig 1.5: Map Showing Residential Zone in Benin-City----------------------------...20 Fig 1.6: Plan of Benin-City Showing the Core Area and Intermediate Area------------..22 Fig 2.1: Culture Changes in Tandem with Built Environment------------------------37                         Fig 2.2: Tracing the Change Over Time----------------------------------------...38 Fig 3.1: Hierarchy of Spaces, Showing Private, Semi-Private and Communal Spaces ----..69 Fig 3.2: Summary of Conceptual Framework on Built Form and Culture--------------74   Fig 4.1: Map Showing Residential Zone in Benin-City----------------------------...81 Fig 6.1a Floor Plan of a Palace Compound Benin House--------------------------113  Fig 6.2b: Floor Plan of a Palace Compound Benin House------------------------.....114 Fig 6.3c: Floor Plan of a Palace Compound Benin House--------------------------115 Fig 6.4a: Floor Plan of a Family Compound Benin House------------------------....117 Fig 6.5: Floor Plan of a Modified Family Compound Benin House------------------119                           Fig 6.6b: Floor Plan of a Modified Family Compound Benin House----------------..122 Fig 6.7c: Floor Plan of a Modified Family Compound Benin House----------------....123    Fig 6.8: Floor Plan of an Adapted Family Compound Benin House----------------.....125                            Fig 6.9a: Floor Plan of a Hybrid Family Compound Benin House------------------.126  xiii Fig 6.10b: Floor Plan of a Hybrid Family Compound Benin House----------------.....127    Fig 6.11a: Floor Plan of a Face Me I Face You” Central Corridor House------------.....129 Fig 6.12b: Floor Plan of a Face Me I Face You” Corridor House-Type--------------...130                         Fig 6.13: Floor Plan of a Detached Bungalow House----------------------------.132 Fig 6.14: Floor Plan of Semi-Detached Flats of Double Floor House----------------133 Fig 6.15: Floor Plan of a Modified Family-Compound Benin House----------------.135      Fig 6.16c: Floor Plan of a Face Me I Face You” Corridor House-Type--------------....136 Fig 6.17: Floor Plan of A Semi-Detached Flats Single Floor House----------------.....137 Fig 6.18: Floor Plan of a Semi-Detached Flats Double Floor House----------------..138 Fig 6.19a: Floor Plan of a Detached Bungalow House----------------------------139 Fig 6.20b: Floor Plan of a Detached Bungalow House----------------------------140 Fig 6.21c: Floor Plan of a Detached Bungalow House----------------------------141 Fig 6.22b: Floor Plan of a Semi-Detached Flats Single Floor House----------------....143 Fig 6.23d: Floor Plan of a Detached Bungalow House----------------------------..144  Fig 6.24: Floor Plan of a Duplex House-Type----------------------------------...145 Fig 6.25: Ground and Upper Floor Plan of a Detached House----------------------147 Fig 6.26: Basement, Ground and Upper Floor Plan of a Detached Villa House-Type----..149                   Fig 7.1a: Floor Plan of a Palace Compound Courtyard House Socio-Spatial Analysis of a Palace Compound Courtyard House ----------------------....190 Fig 7.1b: Justified Graph for Space Permeability a Palace Compound Courtyard House-- 191 xiv Fig 7.2a: Floor Plan of a Family Compound Courtyard House Socio-Spatial Analysis of a Family Compound Courtyard House------------------------..169 Fig 7.2b: Justified Graph for Space Permeability a Family Compound Courtyard House --------------------------------------------170            Fig 7.3a: Floor Plan of an Adapted Family Compound Courtyard House Socio-Spatial Analysis of an Adapted Family Compound Courtyard House----....181 Fig 7.3b: Justified Graph for Space Permeability a Adapted Family Compound Courtyard House --------------------------------------------.....182 Fig 7.4a: Floor Plan of a Hybrid Family Compound Courtyard House Socio-Spatial Analysis of a Hybrid Family Compound Courtyard House------.211 Fig 7.4b: Justified Graph for Space Permeability A Hybrid Family Compound Courtyard House --------------------------------------------.....212 Fig 7.5a: Floor Plan of a Common Corridor House (Face Me I Face You)Socio-Spatial Analysis of a Common Corridor House (Face Me I Face You)--.....224 Fig 7.5b: Justified Graph for Space Permeability a Common Corridor House (Face Me I Face You)----------------------------------------225 Fig 7.6a: Floor Plan of a Detached Bungalow House Socio-Spatial Analysis of a Detached Bungalow House--------------------------------199 Fig 7.6b: Justified Graph for Space Permeability a Detached Bungalow House------.....199 Fig 7.7a: Floor Plan of a Semi-Detached Double Floor House Socio-Spatial Analysis of a Semi-Detached Double Floor House --------------------.192 Fig 7.7b: Justified Graph for Space Permeability a Semi-Detached xv Fig 7.8a: Floor Plan of a Modified Family Compound Courtyard House Socio-Spatial Analysis of a Modified Family Compound Courtyard House----197 Fig 7.8b: Justified Graph for Space Permeability a Modified Family Compound Courtyard House--------------------------------------..198 Fig 7.9a: Floor Plan of a Semi-Detached Single Floor House Socio-Spatial Analysis of A Semi-Detached Single Floor House--------------------171 Fig 7.9b: Justified Graph for Space Permeability a Semi-Detached Single Floor House----------------------------------------------------.171 Fig 7.10a: Ground and Upper Floor Plan of a Detached Double Floor Villa House Socio-Spatial Analysis of a Detached Double Floor Villa House----------....226 Fig 7.10c: Justified Graph for Space Permeability a Detached Double Floor Villa House----------------------------------------------------228  List of Tables  Table 4.1: Calculated Sample Size (Total Residential Houses Across the Four Residential Zones Projected From 1991-2009 (52, 850)----------------.83 Table 5.1: Income per Annum of the Respondent----------------------------------91 Table 5.2: Occupation of the Respondent----------------------------------------92 Table 5.3: Age of the Respondent----------------------------------------------93 Table 5.4: Gender of the Respondent------------------------------------------...93 Table 5.5: Marital Status of Respondent----------------------------------------..94 Table 5.6: Number of Persons in the Household of the Respondent (Household Size)----..95 Table 5.7: Educational Background of Respondent--------------------------------.96  Table 5.8: Tenure Status of Respondent----------------------------------------.97 Table 5.9: Religion of the Respondent------------------------------------------.99 Table 5.10: Number of Household in the House----------------------------....100 Table 6.1: Number of Selected Residential Houses in the Four Zone of Benin--------..102 Table 6.2: The House-Types As Identified During the Field Survey------------104  Table 6.3: Tenure Composition----------------------------------------------..151 Table 6.4: Number of Household in the House----------------------------------..152 Table 6.5: Length of Years of Stay in the House--------------------------------...154 Table 6.6: Age of the House--------------------------------------------.....155 Table 6.7: Owner of the House--------------------------------------------157 Table 7.1: Cooking and Eating (a Place for Meal Preparation)----------------------.174Table 7.2: Cooking and Eating (the Cooking Space Users)------------------------...175 Table 7.3: Cooking and Eating (the Usage of the Cooking Space)------------------....175x Table 7.4: Cooking and eating (Number of Households Sharing cooking space)------...177Table 7.5: Cooking and eating (Space Allocated for Dish Washing)----------------....178 Table 7.6: Cooking and eating (Space for Family Eating)------------------------.....179 Table 7.7: Storage of Household Goods (Space for Storing Cooking Utensils)--------..184 Table 7.8: Storage of Household Goods (Space for Storing Raw Food Item)----------...185 Table 7.9: Storage of Household Goods (Space for Preservation of Water)----------.....186 Table 7.10: Storage of Household Goods (Space for Keeping Clothes)--------------..187Table 7.11: Storage of Household Goods (thoughts on the Arrangement of Space)----.....188Table 7.12: Sleeping Arrangement (Sleeping Space For Different Members of the Family)- ---------------------------------...195 Table 7.13: Sleeping Arrangement (Relaxation Space for the Respondent Any Time of the Day) ------------------------------...196 Table 7.14: Personal Hygiene (Space for Family Bath) --------------------------.....202 Table 7.15: Personal Hygiene (Usage of Space for Family Bath)------------------.....203 Table 7.16: Personal Hygiene (Number of Households Using the Space for Family Bath) ----------------------------.....204  Table 7.17: Personal Hygiene (Space for Washing Clothes by Household)------------205 Table 7.18: Personal Hygiene (Usage of Space for Washing Clothes)----------------206 Table 7.19: Personal Hygiene (Type of Toilet Being Used by Household)------------...207 Table 7.20: Personal Hygiene (Location of Toilet Facility)------------------------208 Table 7.21: Personal Hygiene (Usage of Space for Toilet)------------------------..209  Table 7.22: Outdoor Space (Demarcation of Space Around the House)--------------.215  Table 7.23: Outdoor Space (Use of External Space Around the House)--------------.216  Table7.24: Outdoor Space (Engaging in Small Business at Home)------------------.217 xi Table 7.25: Outdoor Space (Type of Small Business at Home)--------------------..218 Table 7.26: Visitors (Space for Receiving Visitor)--------------------....219  Table 7.27: Visitors (Space for Receiving Visitor that Will Stay Overnight) ----------.220 Table 7.28: Visitors (Inconveniences of Visitor Staying Overnight) ----------------...221 Table 7.29: Visitors (Possibility of Having Appropriate Space for Visitor                     Staying Overnight) --------------------------------222  Table 7.30: Worship (Performing of Religious Activities in the House) ------------.....230  Table 7.31: Worship (Space for Performing Religious Activities in the House)--------.232  Table 7.32: Worship (Space for Worship in the House) --------------------------233  Table 7.33: Worship (Existence of Such Space for Worship in the House)----------....234  Table 7.34: Worship (Reason for Non-Existence of Such Space for Worship                     in the House)----------------------------------...235 Table 7.35: Worship (Importance of Space for Worship in the House)------------....235 Table 7.36: Factors Responsible for Change and Continuity in Core Zone----------....238 Table 7.37: Factors Responsible for Change and Continuity in Intermediate Zone----.....239 Table 7.38: Factors Responsible for Change and Continuity in Sub-Urban Zone------241 Table7.39: Factors Responsible for Change and Continuity in Planned Estate Zone----.243 Table 7.40: Factors that Determine the Peopleâs Response and Attitudes towards                     Change in Domestic Spaces as well as Continuity in Domestic Space                    across the Four Residential Zones in Benin--------------------244


Useful Links:

Related Projects