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CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTIONIn modern dairy husbandry forage crop are harvested at a stage when yields and nutritional value are maximax, and are then preserved in order to ensure continuous and consistent forage supply throughout the year, and are then preserved in order to ensure continuous and consistent forage supply throughout the year. The major goal of preservation is to retain the original nutritional value of the feed at the highest value possible during storage in the food industry for human consumption many preservation method are available: cooling and freezing preservation by heat (blanching, pasturing, commercial sterilization, drying, modified atmospheres, picking and use of preservative (potter, 1978). For economical considerations and technical reasons many of these methods are not applicable for forage crop preservation, forage crops are preserved either by hay making (field drying) or by ensiling. Hay is preserved because of it low water content which restricts detrimental microbial activity. Hay making is restricted to “thin” crops which can dry quickly and uniformly, and to areas without rainfall during the harvesting season.Silages are the materials produced by the controlled fermentation of a crop of high moisture content silage is the name given to the process and the container used is called the Silo. Almost any crop can be preserved as silage, Also crop residence like agro industrial by product (Brewer spent grains) can also be preserved as silage, although the commonest crops used are grasses, and legumes and whole cereals, especially Maize (Mc Donald P, et al., 1991).According to Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, fifty Editions, silage is defined as fodder prepared by compressing and   fermenting green forage crops under anaerobic conditions usually in a silo considering the real climate condition silage is the best method for preserving fresh forage with minimal losses. Silage quality and nutritional value are influenced by numerous biological factors, when the proper ensilage techniques are used silage will have a high nutritive value.Ensiling is a preservation method for large masses moist crops. It is based on lactic acid fermentation under anaerobic condition whereby lactic acid bacteria (LAB) convert water-soluble carbohydrates into organic acids, mainly to lactic acid. As a result the pH decreases and the moist crop is preserved. Air is detrimental to silage because it’s enable plant respiration and the activity of aerobic spoilage micro-organism such as yeast and moulds (Woolford, 1990). When air is still present between the plant particles and the pH is still high, 6.0-6.5. During this stage plant respiration continues, as well as proteolysis and the activity of aerobic micro-organism such as enterobacteria fungi and yeast. Fermentation stage occurs where there is a dynamic succession of lab which changes according to the condition prevailing in silage, starting with enterococei and leuconostoc. Followed by lactoballi and pediococci (Woolford, 1984). Lactic acid and other organic acid accumulate and the pH decreases, below 5.0 depending on plant composition and it buffering capacity.

1.1    THE OBJECTIVE OF THESE RESEARCH WERE1.    To assess the pH and physical characteristics of Panicum Maximum supplemented and ensiled with brewers spent grain.2.    To evaluate the chemical composition of the Panicum Maximum.

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