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CHAPTER ONE1.0     INTRODUCTIONHaemoparasitic infections have a global distribution, stretching from the polar circle to the equator. This is due to the fact that their vectors; ticks and bloodsucking flies, also have a global distribution. The worldwide incidence of haemoparasitic infections in cattle has been severally reported by different workers (Laha et al., 1989; Luckins, 1992; Thach et al., 1996). In Nigeria there are about 10-15 million cattle, 1.2 million of these are in Ibadan, South West, Nigeria (NLS, 2009) and approximately half of these belong to the communal and commercial farmers (Palmer et al., 2006). Cattle owned by resource-poor farmers are kept on communal rangelands where they are grazed extensively (Masika and Mafu, 2004). Communal grazing is characterized by poor management of cattle and low productivity. Consequently, diseases and parasitism are rife and constitute major threats to cattle production in communal areas (Kaewthamasorn and Wongsamee, 2006, Rajput et al., 2006). Cattle in Nigeria may be infected with a wide variety of vector-borne haemoparasites (Callow, 1978, Swallow, 2000). Trypanosomes of the genera Trypanosoma vivax, T. congolense and T. brucei, are amongs the most important haemoparasite of cattle in Africa (Makala et al., 2003; Mtshali et al., 2004; Kamani et al., 2010). African animal trypanosomosis, is considered as the most important constraints to the health and improved productivity of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa (FAO, 1984; Young et al., 1988, Bell-sakyi et al., 2004). This disease have generally shown to be associated with the destruction of red blood cells resulting in anaemia, jaundice, anorexia, weight loss and infertility (Mtshali et al., 2004; Kaufman et al., 2006, Jonsson, 2006; Justin, 2008). Cattle are very important economically because they are sources of animal protein and income. Their by products such as hoof, bones, blood, hides and skin. Beef is the third most widely consumed meat in the world, accounting for about 25% of meat production worldwide, after pork and poultry at 38% and 30% respectively. Trypanosomosis have a global distribution. This is due to the fact that their vectors (tse tse fly) also have a global distribution. African trypanosomosis (AT) is a very important disease of domestic livestock in sub-Saharan Africa. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, 2000), it is probably the only disease which has profoundly affected the settlement and economic development of a major part of a continent. Animal trypanosomosis affects the health and productivity of livestock. It occurs in 37 sub-Saharan countries covering about 9 million km2 , an area which corresponds approximately to one-third of the Africa's total land area (Mtshali et al., 2004). An estimated 45 to 60 million cattle and tens of millions of small ruminants are at risk from trypanosomosis (Chadenga, 1994; Gilbert et al., 2001). FAO estimates that about three million cattle die each year due to AAT (FAO, 2002). Other valuable livestock, such as camels, also suffer from trypanosomosis (FAO (2000). Direct costs due to AT involve decreased livestock productivity (mortality, fertility, milk yield, ability to work as traction animals) to which can be added expenditure on controlling the disease (Bourn, 1978). Thirty five millions doses of trypanocides are administered each year to protect livestock in tsetse infected areas (Sones, 2001). Direct losses due to trypanosomiasis are estimated to amount to between US$ 1-1.2 billion each year whereas the indirect impact of AT on agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa exceeds this amount (FAO, 2002). A pondered evaluation extrapolated for the total tsetse-infested lands values the total losses, in terms of agricultural Gross Domestic Product, at US$ 4.75 billion per year (FAO, 2002). The overall impact extends to the restricted access to fertile and cultivable areas, imbalances in land use and exploitation of natural resources and compromised growth and diversification of crop-livestock production systems (Mtshali et al., 2004). The presence of tsetse flies and animal trypanosomosis in much of Africa south of the Sahara also had a major influence on the agricultural systems. Large areas of tropical Africa are unsuitable for livestock production due to presence of tsetse flies (Murray and Gray, 1984). In some Central African countries like the Republic of Gabon, the Republic of Congo, the Democratic Republic of Congo and southern Cameroon there are still extensive areas of relatively undeveloped land. Only trypanotolerant breeds of domestic livestock can be kept here without chemoprophylaxis.1.1      STATEMENT  OF PROBLEM Livestock productivity in sub saharan African countries such as Nigeria suffer from high prevalence of trypanosomosis with projected annual losses due to the direct and indirect consequences of the disease running into billions of naira with disproportionate adverse effect in rural area (Maikaje et al, 1991). This creates serious constriants to livestock and crop production thus directly influencing hunger, poverty, protein malnutrition and suffering of entire communities in Nigeria (Maikaje et al, 2002). Animal trpanosomosis therefore, is an important livestock disease in Nigeria which is considered as a threat to the on-going effort on poverty alleviation in the country. (Kalu et al., 2001). Outbreaks of this disease in cattle herds are one of the major problems militating against the cattle industry in Nigeria (Samdi et al, 2008). Moreso, the impact of trypanosomosis in this agro-ecological zone has impacted negatively on the adaptability of the bunagi (White Fulani) breed of cattle in this belt.

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