Project Body:




Without  doubt, English  is a prestigious international language, as a result, its application has broad appeal and scope. Interestingly, good writing of English Language requires a working knowledge of grammar, a refinement of the basic or instinctive knowledge the writer has already had. Good writing is more than the art of obeying grammatical rules. It is the art of arranging words, phrases, sentences and paragraphs in such a way as to engage and sustain the reader’s attention. According to  Cain and Oakhill, (2007), writing process involves compilation of texts as well as orthography and grammar. It involves the right meaning of words, grammatically correct spelling and correct syntax and grammar contractions must be acquired in order to attain a good penmanship. Rivers (1988) defines grammar as the rules of a language set out in a terminology which is hard to remember, with many exceptions appended to each rule. The writing of a grammar is basically an attempt at systematization and codification of a mass of data which may at first sight appear amorphous but within which recurrent regularities can be discerned. The way in which this systematization is approached depends on the convictions of the grammarian about the nature of language (River 1988). William (1981) defines grammar as an inescapable fact of a language system because it is the set of principles which permit orderly speaking and writing.

Bizarrely, Learning grammar, especially the use of punctuation marks is one of the most difficult tasks for pupils in basic classes (primary sc. This is confirmed by international comparative studies (e.g., OECD  2009,  2013)  and the  result of  national academic  placement tests  in the native language (Sinka, 2009). According to Kachru (1981), its usage and functions have undoubtedly made it a native in many nations throughout the world, including Nigeria. Notably, it is a difficult challenge for residents to learn and utilize the language effectively. The government is likewise dedicated to this landable path. Thus, the use of English by educated Nigerians in particular is a fundamental problem, given that it is the official language of the country and thus of practically equal significance to all people, and its usage confers a classic status on the user. As a result, everyone desires to be a fluent speaker or writer of the language.

Importantly, Learners’ errors and deviant forms in the use of English are a major challenge in the teaching and learning of English in Nigerian Secondary Schools. However, Kisparsky (1972) have classified errors in second language learning into two. They are global and local. According to him, the former impairs the intelligibility of a message, while the latter does not significantly affect the reception of the intended message. Other challenges confronting the teaching of grammar includes Language transfer (Interlingual), Faulty application of rules (Intralingual), Faulty instructional materials and techniques and  the inconsistency in the orthography of English. All which makes the teaching and learning of grammar I primary school difficult.


English is a second language for indigenous peoples and students in Nigeria. The usage and application of English as a second language pose severe problems for the students, and their performance, both written and spoken, has not been spectacular throughout the years. According to Akinbode (2006), bad performance of students in the Common Entrance Examination (English) and their spoken form has been attributed to flawed educational systems, a lack of properly competent English teachers, a poor pupil-parent attitude toward learning, or even government lip service.More so, Pupils in primary schools make a mess of grammar in their writing. On the whole, the pupils perform below average in their examination especially when they go out for quiz competition in other school, performance appears to be on the decline, their mechanical skills (grammar, spelling and punctuation) and expression have been deteriorating in the last five years.

Observation has revealed that in most situations, the majority of the children who also did wonderfully well, must have had some inspiration from their families and backgrounds, i.e. the sort of setting in which a youngster finds himself. The above-mentioned style of atmosphere is mostly determined by students' socioeconomic position. Some of the infrastructure in their house that did their spoken of Grammar such as private reading room; viewing television, listening to radio, and reading newspapers (Vardja, 2008). Those things might not have been offered if the parent's socio-learning and economic situation had not been backed up with enough aid. A child with highly educated parents is more likely to get assistance from his parents at home, and he is more likely to develop an interest in reading books, watching television, and listening to the radio, all of which his parents do on a daily basis. He improves his speaking grammar and aptitude as a result of this approach. Meanwhile, the illiterate group does not often receive such supervision at home, nor do they gain proficiency in spoken and written language as a consequence of home circumstances. Even though there is a general assumption that  grammar is very essential to the student  academic achievement in  tertiary and secondary education  level, scanty literature exist to provide empirical evidence to support or disprove the  impact  teaching-learning of grammar in primary school pupils. Also problematic is the near absence of studies on challenges associated to teaching of grammar. Therefore it is against this backdrop that this study seeks to present a review of challenges hampering  the effective teaching of grammar in primary schools.

Disclaimer: Using this Service/Resources: You are allowed to use the original model papers you will receive in the following ways:
  1. 1. This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research work
  2. 2. As a source for additional understanding of the subject.
  3. 3. As a source for ideas for your own research work (if properly referenced).
  4. 4. For PROPER paraphrasing (see your university definition of plagiarism and acceptable paraphrase)
  5. 5. Direct citing (if referenced properly)
  6. Thank you so much for your respect to the authors copyright.

Useful Links: